What is Ruqyah?
Posted October 25, 2011on:
Ruqyah is a vast subject and covers many topics such as Sihr (Magic) Masaha (Possession) and Ayn (Evil Eye). We have presented a basic outline in regards to what is Ruqyah and how it is related to us via the Sunnah. Ruqyah is the treatment relayed to us by the Prophet Muhammad (saw) for afflictions such as Sihr (Magic) Masaha (Possession) and Ayn (Evil Eye).
To translate Ruqyah as ‘incantation’ may bring to mind connotations of magic and sorcery which are forbidden in Islam. To use the term "By spiritual means" may not convey the meaning in full. [See Ismail L.Faruq's Translation].
The meaning most relevant to us when asking the question what is Ruqyah, is that Ruqyah is when a person recites part of the Qur’an such as Al-Fatihah or makes supplication using words transmitted from the authentic Hadith of the Prophet (saw) Ref. Fath-ul-Majid]
It was narrated that A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) said:
"When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) was ill, he would recite al-Mu`awidhatayn (surahs of Al-Falaq and An-Nas) over himself and spit dryly. When his pain grew intense, I recited over him and wiped him with his own hand, seeking its blessing. " (Al-Bukharee).
With regard to the du`aa’ that is prescribed for the Muslim to say if he wants to recite Ruqyah for himself or for someone else, there are many such du`aa’s, most common are Al-Fatihah and Al-Mu`awidhatayn.
A group of the Companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) set out on a journey and traveled until they came near one of the Arab tribes. They asked them for hospitality but they were refused. Then the leader of that tribe was stung, and his people tried everything to cure him but nothing helped. Then some of them said, "Why don’t you go to those people who are staying (nearby)? Maybe one of them has something." So they went to them and said, "O people, our leader has been stung and we have tried everything and nothing helped him. Do you have anything?" One of them said, "Yes, by Allah. I will perform Ruqyah for him, but by Allah we asked you for hospitality and you did not give us anything, so we will not perform Ruqyah for you unless you give us something in return." So they agreed on a flock of sheep, then he started to blow on him and recite Al-hamdu Lillahi Rabb il-`Alameen. Then he recovered quickly from his complaint and started walking, and he was completely cured. After that they took the flock of sheep, and some of the companions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said, "Let us share it out." The one who had performed Ruqyah said, "Do not do anything until we come to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and tell him what happened, and we will wait and see what he tells us to do." So they came to the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) and told him what had happened. He said, "How did you know that it is a Ruqyah?" Then he said, "You did the right thing. Share them out, and give me a share." And the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) smiled. (Al-Bukharee and Muslim).
The du`aa’s that have been narrated in the Sunnah include the following: It was narrated that Ibn `Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: "The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) used to seek refuge for al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and he would say, ‘Your father [ meaning Ibrahim peace be upon him] used to seek refuge with Allah for Isma`il and Ishaq with these words: A`udhu bi kalimat Allah al-tammah min kulli shaytanin wa hammah wa min kulli `aynin lammah (I seek refuge in the perfect words of Allah, from every devil and every poisonous reptile, and from every evil eye).’" (Al-Bukharee).
To exorcize the Jinn is obligatory according to the principles of repelling oppression, aiding the oppressed, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil, just as it is with humans. A question was posed to Ibn Taymiyah (ra) regarding the subject, he expressed: "In (exorcism) there is also alleviation of grief and suffering of the oppressed." Allah’s Messenger (saw) is reported by Abu Hurayrah in Saheeh Muslim (vol: 4, no: 6250) to have said: "Whoever relieves a believer of one of the tragedies of life, Allah will relieve him of one of the calamities of the Day of Resurrection." Jaabir (ra) also reported in Saheeh Muslim (vol: 3, no: 5456) that when Allah’s Messenger (saw) was asked about incantation, he replied: "Whoever among you is able to help his brother, he should do so."
Hadith regarding not seeking Ruqyah
Many people seem to be under the impression that it is better not to seek a cure which is incorrect. With regard to the hadith narrated by Muslim, according to which the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) described the seventy thousand of this Ummah who will enter Paradise without being brought to account or punished, and in which it says: "They are those who did not recite Ruqyah or ask for Ruqyah to be done, and they did not believe in bad omens and they put their trust in their Lord " – the phrase "they did not recite Ruqyah " is the words of the narrator, not of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). Hence Al-Bukharee narrated this hadith and did not mention this phrase. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "These people are praised because they did not ask anyone to recite Ruqyah for them, and Ruqyah is a type of du`aa’, so they did not ask others to pray for them. The phrase "and they did not recite Ruqyah " which is mentioned in the hadith is a mistake (on the part of the narrator), for their Ruqyah for themselves and for others is a good deed. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) recited Ruqyah for himself and for others but he did not ask anyone to recite Ruqyah for him. His reciting Ruqyah for himself and others was like his making du`aa’ for himself and others; this is something that is enjoined, for all the prophets asked of Allah and prayed to Him, as Allah tells us in the stories of Adam, Ibraheem, Musa. " (Majmu` al-Fatawa, 1/182)
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allah have mercy on him) said: "This phrase is inserted in the hadith, but it is a mistake on the part of some of the narrators." (Hadi al-Arwah, 1/89)
Types of Ruqyah
There are some important conditions that must be satisfied in a ruqyah to make it permissible. They were summarized by Ibn Hajar (AR):
"There is a consensus among the ‘ulama that Ruqyah are permissible when they satisfy three conditions:
1 – To be with Allah’s words or His names and attributes
2 – To be in Arabic or of an intelligible meaning
3 – And to believe that they do not have effect by themselves but by Allah (swt)." Fath ul Bari 10/240
In what follows, we discuss each of these conditions:
1. Must Be with Allah’s Words, Names, or Attributes
As we will see below, all forms of Ruqyah reported in the Sunnah satisfy this condition. They either consist of specific portions of the Qur’an, such as al-Fatiha or Ayat ul-Kursiy, or contain a praise of Allah (swt) and an invocation of His help and protection.
2. Must Be with Clearly Understood Words This is an important condition that must be satisfied in order to eliminate any magic factors from the ruqyah.
3. Believing That the True Benefit Is from Allah (swt)
Similar to our earlier discussion of medicines, one must always believe that the true and ultimate protector is Allah (swt) alone, and that Ruqyah and medications are means that He created and He controls as He wills. Thus trust must be put in Him and not in the means that He created. Allah (swt) commands His Messenger (saw): So seek refuge with Allah (only); verily, it is He who is all-Hearer, all-Seer. (Al Ghafir 40:56).
Ruqyah from the Sunnah
Various forms of supplications for prevention or healing, some of which may be classified as Ruqyah, have been presented in this site. In what follows, we include some more, or refer to earlier ones, as the discussion warrants.
Ruqyah with Allah’s Name
Abu Sa’id al-Khudri (RA) reported that Jibril came to the Prophet (saw) and said:, "O Muhammad, are you sick?" He replied, ‘Yes.’ He said: "Bismillahi arqik, min kulli shayin yuthik, min sharri kulli nafsin aw ayni hasid – With Allah’s Name I shelter you (give you ruqyah), from all that ails you, from the evil of every soul, or that of the envious eyes. May Allah cure you; with Allah’s Name I shelter you." Muslim.
Ruqyah with Allah’s Book
‘Aishah (RA) reported that Allah’s Messenger (saw) came into her house and saw with her a woman who was treating her with ruqyah. He told her: ‘Treat her (only) with Allah’s Book.’ Recorded by Ibn Hibban; verified to be authentic by al-Albani in as-Sahihah no. 1931. In what follows, we present Ruqyah with specific Surahs or ayat as is recorded in the Sunnah.
1. Ruqyah with al-Fatiha
Abu Sa’id al-Khudri and Ibn Abbas (RA) reported that a number of the Prophet’s (saw) companions were on a journey. They stopped one night by the dwellings of a bedouin tribe who refused to host them and give them food. The chief of that tribe was then stung (by a snake or scorpion). His people tried everything possible to treat him, but to no avail. One of them suggested to seek help from the travellers. When they came to them, one of them said, "By Allah, I can perform ruqyah; but you have refused to host us. So I would not perform the ruqyah until you pledge to give us an offering." They agreed to give them a flock of thirty sheep, and the companion started blowing (with light spit) on the stung man’s sting and reading al-Fatiha. He was immediately cured, like one who was tied and then set free. He stood and walked as if nothing happened to him, and they gave them their pledged offering.
Some of the companions said, "Let us divide this flock among us." Others said, "No, you may not take any pay for reading Allah’s Book! Let us not divide the goats until we reach the Prophet (saw), tell him what happened, and see what he commands us."
When they reached al-Madinah, they came to the Prophet (saw) and told him what happened. He said (approvingly):’How did you know that it (al-Fatiha) is a ruqyah? You have done well! And indeed, the best thing to be paid for is Allah’s Book*. So, divide it among you; and allot a share for me.’ Al Bukharee, Muslim.
2. Ruqyah with al-Muawwidhat
As explained earlier, al-Muawwidhat are the last three Surahs of the Qur’an. The last two of them carry a clear meaning of ruqyah, and are presented below. Surat ul-Ikhlas (112) does not carry such meaning in an explicit manner, but contains concise and strong words of praise for Allah (swt), making it an important introduction to the succeeding two Surahs: (Say, "I seek refuge with the Lord of daybreak, from the evil of what he created, and from the evil of darkness when it settles, and from the evil of the blowers in knots, and from the evil of an envier when he envies.") 113 (Say, "I seek refuge with the Lord of the people, the King of the people, the God of the people, from the evil of a retreating whisperer, who whispers (evil) in the breasts of the people, (whether he is) from among jinns or the people.") 114
‘Aishah (RA) reported: "When Allah’s Messenger (saw) went to bed, he would bring the palms of both hands together, and blow into them while reading "Qul huwa Allahu ahad" 112, "Qul a’udhu bi rabb il-falaq" 113, "Qul a’udhu bi rabbi n-Nas" 114. He would then rub with them whatever he could reach of his body, starting with his head, face, and the front part of his body. He would do this three times. When he got very ill, he asked me to do that for him." Al Bukharee and Muslim.
‘Aishah (RA) also reported: "In the final sickness in which he passed away, the Prophet (saw) used to blow over himself with al-Mu’awwidhat. When he became very ill, I blew with them for him, rubbing over him with his own hand because of the blessing in it." Al Bukharee and Muslim
We can use these Surahs for scorpion stings like it as been reported in a hadith.
3. Ruqyah with Ayat ul-Kursi
Ubayy Bin Ka’b narrated that he had a harvest of dates. He noticed that it shrunk every day, and decided to watch it at night. He did and noticed a beast that looked like a boy who attained puberty. He gave him salam, and it responded to him with salam.
He asked it, "Are you human or jinn" It replied, "Jinn." He told it, "Show me your hand." It showed him its hand, and he saw that it looked like a dog’s, with fur like that of a dog covering it. He exclaimed, "Is this how jinn are like!?" It then told him, "All jinns know that there is no one among them stronger than me." He asked it, "What brought you here?" It replied, "We have been informed that you like to give charity, so we came to get some of your food." He asked it, "What would protect us from you?" It replied, "This ayah from Surat ul-Baqarah: (Allahu la ilaha illa huwa Al-Hayy ul-Qayyum,) (2/255) – whoever says it in the evening will be protected from us until the morning, and whoever says it in the morning will be protected from us until the evening."
In the morning, Ubayy came to Allah’s Messenger (saw) and told him of that incident. He told him, ‘The evil one has said the truth!’ Recorded by An-Nasai.