Islamic Sufism Spirituality

Archive for the ‘Stories of the Quran – قصص القرآن الكريم’ Category

 

The discussion about Dzulqarnain has to start with determining his real identity.

1st Viewpoint:

  • He lived in the same age with Prophet Ibrahim a.s.
  • It is thought that he met Prophet Ibrahim a.s. in Palestine
  • Professor Muhammad Khayr Ramadhan Yusuf agrees with this view based on similar views by tsiqah Islamic Historians: Abu Hayyan (author of al-Bahr al-Muhith), al-Qurtubi (author al-Jami’ li Ahkaam al-Quran), Sheikh Ege (author Tafsir Jami’ al-Bayaan), az-Zamakhsyari (author Tafsir al-Kasyaf), an-Nasafi (Tafsir Madarik at-Tanzil), al-Alusi (author Ruh al-Ma’aani), al-Azraqi, Ibnu Iyas (penulis Bada’ie az-Zuhoor fi Waqa’ie ad-Duhoor) and Ali Duka (author Muhadharah al-Awa’il).

However, there were no conclusive evidence by all mentioned above.

2nd Viewpoint:

  • Dzulqarnain is Alexander the Macedon, born in Macedonia 356BC
  • His father is King Philip of Macedonia
  • King Philip put Alexander under the tutor of Aristotle
  • King Philip died when Alexander was 20 years old and took the throne in 336BC
  • 2 years later he launched a campaign against the Persian Empire and defeated it on 333BC and subsequently conquered Syam and Iraq, eventually India
  • In his brief reign over 10 years, he has conquered almost every known empires that existed at that time.
  • Returned to Greece, on the way stopped over in Babylon, Iraq to rest.
  • Fell into high fever for 11 days and died on 323BC at the age of 33.
  • Known as Dzulqarnain (Having two horns) for his victories over the 2 major empires at the time, Persia and Greece.
  • Those who believed that Alexander is Dzulqarnain mentioned in the al-Quran include many well known Mufassirin and Historians such as:  Al-Mas’udi, al-Maqrizi, ats-Tsa’labi, al-Idrisi, ar-Razi, Abu Hayyan, an-Nasafi, Abu al-Mas’ud, al-Alusi, al-Qasimi and Muhammad Farid Wajdi

However, this view is incorrect because the al-Quran explicitly mentioned characteristics of Dzulqarnain as someone who is a god fearing believer, fair, pious and just ruler.

  • However this contradicts with characteristics of Alexander the Macedon who is a known Musyrik, idol worshiper, adulturous, and consumes liquor.

3rd Viewpoint:

  • Dzulqarnain is King Kaurush / Cyrus the Great from Persia
  • He united the kingdoms of Lydia and Media
  • Reigned for 30 years 559BC – 539BC
  • Scholars who hold this view include: Abu al-Kalam Aazad in his book Yas’aloonaka ‘an Dzil Qarnain and Dr. Abdul ‘Aleem Abdul Rahman Khadar author of Qissah Dzil Qarnain.

CYRUS / KAURUSH

  • Kaurush ruled Persia during the early periods of Persian Iranian history before the conquest of Alexander the Macedon
  • Persia was divided in two at the time: Faris at the South and Media at the North
  • When Kaurush took the throne in 559BC, he united the two kingdoms.
  • He expanded his empire with the intention of freeing oppressed people

Famous wars fought:

  1. Rome in the west
  2. Eastern campaigns
  3. Northern Campaigns

WAR AGAINST GREECE IN THE WEST

  • Greece at the time was a neighbor with Lydia situated in Northern Asia Minor that stretched all the way to the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea
  • There were constant wars between the two powers Lydia (Greece) dan Media (Persia)
  • Lydia at the time was ruled by King Croesus
  • When Kaurush took the throne, Croesus announced war with Kaurush
  • Kaurush prepared an army and mobilized to the West towards Lydia until two major battles ensued at Patria dan Sardis.
  • Croesus was defeated and Lydia Kingdom became a vassal of Kaurush.
  • Kaurush treated the Lydians fairly and justly
  • This war is the first campaign waged by Kaurush as stated in the al-Quran. The capital city of Lydia is Sardis located at Aegean sea near Izmir in present day Turkey.
  • Dr Abdul Aleem Abdul Rahman Khadar describes the Aegean sea near Izmir as having the similar description of the sun setting in black muddy waters by al-Quran surah al-Kahf verse 86.

EASTERN CAMPAIGN

  • At the Eastern borders there were nomadic people who were conducting acts of fasad (wickedness) at the edge of King Kaurush empire
  • After defeating Croesus, Kaurush heads East to crush the nomadic uprising
  • His conquests in the East reached the Sind River, Isfahan, Khurasan, Qum and others.
  • The nomadic nature of these tribes saw little needed for permanent residences. Due to this they did have permanent shelter to weather the heat as mentioned in surah al-Kahf verse 90.

CAMPAIGN IN THE NORTH AGAINST GOG AND MAGOG

After securing his position in the West by defeating Lydian Kingdom and the East and also the Southern borders after conqueirng Babylon, Kaurush mobilized to the North to strengthen his positions there

  • The Northern regions include Georgia, Adzerbaijan and Armenia located South of the Caucasus Mountains
  • The Caucasus Mountains is a continoues mountanous range and there are no roads through it except for one solitary pass called the Daryal Pass
  • South of the Caucasus is inhabited by Kochian tribes while North of the mountains is inhabited by Turkic tribes known as Scythians or Gog & Magog who lived very barbaric livestyle as described by al-Quran.
  • The Kochia tribe as mentioned by surah al-Kahf verse 93 were speaking in tongue not known elsewhere in the world.
  • The requested that Kaurush help them to fight the Scythians to the North.
  • Kaurush stayed with the Kochia tribes for 9 years and built the barrier to cover the Daryal Pass from the attacks of Gog & Magog.

DZULQARNAIN’S WALL AT DARYAL PASS

  • Al-Qasimi described “This barrier existed in Dagestan which is now part of Russia between the towns of Darband dan Khuzar. Between these towns lies a mountanous pass which is known for so long as “The Barrier”. Here there is one wall known as the “The Iron Gate”, a very old gate in between the mountain pass. These mountains is very well known to Arabs as the Qaf Mountains.
  • The Caucasus mountain peaks are extremely high that ranges continously from the East and West. The only passable trail is the Daryal Pass located right in the middle of the mountain range. The mountain range spans 1200km and is only passable through the Daryal Pass.

END OF CYRUS AND HIS EMPIRE

  • Cyrus took the throne in 559BC and ruled for 30 years.
  • His empire covered vast swathes of land, Palestin, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turki, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, North Pakistan, Afghanistan dan Turkistan.
  • He died in the year 529BC.
  • He is succeeded by his son Cambyses.
  • Cambyses conquered Eqypt 525BC.
  • Medians under leadership of Gaumata revolted.
  • Cambyses went Egypt to quell the revolt but died along the way in Syam.
  • Cyrus had no other heir, so his nephew Darius succeeded the throne.
  • After Darius, the throne went to Ardashir (Artaxerxes) and he is the one attacked by Alexander the Macedon until his death, with the Empire established by Cyrus (Kaurush) came to an abrupt end.

CHARACTER OF CYRUS AND CHARACTER OF DZULQARNAIN

  • Dzulqarnain as portrayed by the Al-Quran is a just and kind king.
  • Cyrus is known to be just, kind, and merciful as shown during the conquest of Lydia and his hospitality towards King Croesus.
  • Father of Greek Classical History, Herodotus had this to say: “Cyrus was a great and merciful king. He was not preoccupied with amassing great wealth and booty as other Kings would. On the other hand he was a very charitable and liked to help the oppressed and needy, always looked out for the best in humanity.”
  • Xenophon, another Greek historian, concurred with Herodotus regarding Cyrus as a just ruler.

CYRUS FAITHFUL TO ALLAH

  • Al-Quran explicitly mentioned that Dzulqarnain was a God fearing ruler, always in remembrance of Allah, always thankful for all the bounties and power granted by Allah swt.
  • Abu al-Kalam Aazar said that Cyrus’s akidah was based on Tauhid to Allah, he worships Allah and remain sincere to his religion.
  • Cyrus was a follower of Zoroaster (Zoroastrian) which initially was based on Tauhid.
  • He abandoned the old religion of Medes which is the Majusi religion.
  • After the death of Cyrus, Majusi followers revolted and attacked Zoroaster religion.
  • Zoroastrian during Cyrus’s time is based on Tauhid which believed in Allah. However that religion was infiltrated and corrupted by the Majusi community.
  • The Muslim Ummah has never forgotten the basis of Tauhid in Zoroastrian. Rasulullah SAW himself said, “Do what you may unto them like what you do with Ahlul Kitab among the Yahudi dan Nasrani”. It is for this reason that the Muslims collected Jizyah from them.
  • In other words, Zoroastrian was a Samawi religion suffered through the same fate of Judaism dan Christianity, which were corrupted by man.
  • Abu al-Kalam Aazad concludes that Zoroaster was a Prophet sent to the Persians and Cyrus who were followers of this religion and which was eventually corrupted.

BIOGRAPHY OF IBN KATHEER
(700 -774 A.H.)
(May Allah bless his soul)

`Imad Ad-Deen Isma`il Ibn `Umar IbnKatheer Al-Basri Ad-Dimashqi was born in 700 A.H., or shortly afterwards. After the decease of his father, Ibn Katheer, aged seven then, headed for Damascus, accompanied by his elder brother. He owed much of his learning to Ibn Ashginah, Al-Amadi, Ibn `Asakir and others, may Allah be pleased with them all. He immensely revered Ibn Taimiyah, may Allah bless his soul, whose views he believed, defended and mostly abided by, particularly as regards divorce. It was on account of this that he went through an ordeal and was made to suffer a lot.

Ibn Katheer was widely acclaimed for the sublime degree of learning that he so admirably attained. Scholars have unanimously attested to his well- versedness, particularly in the fields of the exegesis of the Glorious Qur’an, Hadith and history. Ibn Habeeb describes him as “the leader of all men engaged in the exegesis (of the Qur’an). He amassed and categorized all (the knowledge) he heard. People marveled at his fatwas and benefited from his teachings. His fatwas grew widely popular all across the country. He was renowned for his precision and was proclaimed as the beacon of history, Hadith and exegesis (of the Qur’an).” Ibn Hijji, one of his students, owed: “Of all our contemporaries, he (Ibn Katheer) was the best at memorizing authentic Hadiths and the most knowledgeable as to assessing the degree of reliability and honesty of Hadith- narrators as well as authentic and non-authentic Hadiths. His comrades and mentors acknowledge every word of the above. I would frequently visit him, and every time I was in is his company I benefited from him.”

Ibn Katheer lost his eyesight shortly before he died in 774 A. H. He was buried at the Sufis cemetery along with his mentor Ibn Taimiyah. Among his best-known works is his masterpiece in history Al-Bidayah wan-Nihayah (The Beginning and the End) .He also interpreted part of Al Bukhari’s Sahih (book of authentic Hadiths). By and large, Ibn Katheer’s admirable knowledge and well-versedness are best manifested to whoever reads his two best celebrated masterpieces; his interpretation and his book of history.

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I began my study of Gog and Magog more than fifteen years ago in the early 90’s while resident in New York. My subsequent public lectures on the subject never failed to provoke keen interest from my Muslim audiences in several parts of the world. The evidence and arguments presented in the chapter on Gog and Magog in my book, ‘Jerusalem in  the Qur’an’, succeeded in convincing many who read the book that we now live in a world dominated by Gog and Magog. They were easily convinced that the ‘town’ mentioned in the Qur’an in Surah al-Anbiyah’ (21:95-6) was Jerusalem and hence, that Gog and Magog (and Dajjal) explained the ominously unfolding ‘war on Islam’ with slaughter and destruction of Muslims in so many parts of the world. As a consequence, such readers also understood Israel’s mysterious imperial agenda, and many have been making efforts to extricate themselves and their families from the embrace of Gog and Magog – an embrace that will take 999 out of every 1000 of mankind into the hellfire.

Despite my best efforts, however, I failed miserably, again and again, to convince my learned peers, the scholars of Islam, that Gog and Magog were even released into the world. I earnestly hope and pray that this book might make a difference Insha’ Allah.

Praise and thanks are due to Allah Most High on the successful completion of this humble pioneering book entitled ‘An Islamic View of Gog and Magog in the Modern World’, the third in our quartet of books on Surah al-Kahf of the Qur’an. The previous two books were entitled: ‘Surah al-Kahf: Text Translation and Modern Commentary’ and ‘Surah al-Kahf and the Modern Age’. The fourth and last book would be devoted, Insha’ Allah, to the subject of Dajjal the false Messiah or Antichrist. It is part of the miracle of Islam that these books should be written in a tiny Caribbean island off the coast of Venezuela in South America by someone whose ancestors were brought from India generations ago to work as indentured laborers in the Britsh-owned sugarcane plantations.

I am profoundly grateful to Dr Tammam Adi, the Qur’an Semanticist who has been resident in USA since 1986, for his valuable advice, guidance and assistance during the writing of this book. I also thank him for kindly consenting to write an Introduction in which he has expressed views which largely coincide with mine. I recognize his expertise in Qur’an Semantics, of which we have more than a glimpse in this brilliantly-written Introduction, to be a precious asset of the contemporary world of Islam. He was born in Damascus in a family which traces its origins to the clan of Umar (radiallahu ‘anhu). A computational linguist with a Ph.D in computer science, he inherited a keen interest in Arabic and linguistics and his research of the use of Arabic in the Holy Qur’an has led him to discover a theory of language. He has agreed to soon begin work on an essay on ‘The Qur’an and the Return of Jesus (‘alahi al-Salam.).’

Muhammad Alamgir, Dr Imran Chaudhry and Dr Hatim Zaghloul were all kind enough to go through the manuscript correcting mistakes and offering valuable suggestions. Tarek Jammal and his team of independent film-makers (wakeupproject.com; hashemsfilms.com) in the Arab world also went through the manuscript and responded with valuable suggestions, as did Salman al-Haq and his team of university students in Islamabad. My dear wife Aisha who has shown infinite patience with me, also assisted. May Allah Most Kind bless them all. Amin!

The writing of this book was kindly sponsored in the names of Rabia Aboobakar Hussein Jakhura and Aboobakar Hussein Jakhura of Malawi in Africa. May Allah Most Kind have mercy on them both. Amin!

Imran N. Hosein
Safar 1430
In the Caribbean island of Trinidad

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An Islamic View of Gog and Magog in the Modern Age

Allah the Almighty says:

{Or like the one who passed by a town and it had tumbled over its roofs. He said: “Oh! How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death?” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)?” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day”. He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh “. When this was clearly shown to him, he said, I know (now) that Allah is Able to do all things”}. (Al-Baqarah, 259)

And, {And the Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allah. That is their saying with their mouths, resembling the saying of those who disbelieved aforetime. Allah’s Curse be on them how they are deluded away from the truth!}. (At-Taubah, 30)

Al-Hafiz Abu Al-Qasim Ibn ‘Asakir said: He is ‘Uzair Ibn Jarwah, or Ibn Suraiq Ibn ‘Adiya Ibn Ayyub Ibn Darzna Ibn ‘Ura Ibn Taqyi Ibn Usbu’ Ibn Finhas Ibn EI-‘Azir Ibn Hamn Ibn ‘Imran. Also, he is said to be ‘Uzair Ibn Smkha. Some narrations state that his grave is located in Damascus. Then, Al-HafizIbn ‘Asakir narrated on the authority of Abu Al-Qasim AI-Baghawi after Dawud Ibn `Amr after Hibban Ibn `Ali after Muhammad Ibn Kuraib after his father after `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas as saying: I do not know whether Tubba` was a cursed one or not? And, I do not know whether `Uzair was a Prophet or not? Then, he narrated the like from the Hadith of Mu’amil Ibn Al-Hasan on the authority of Muhammad Ibn Ishaq As-Sajizi after `Abder Razzaq after Mu`amir after Ibn Abu Dhu’aib after Sa`id Al- Maqbaari on the authority of Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him).

Then, he narrated from Ishaq Ibn Bishr -whom is rejected -after Jubair and Muqatil after Ad Dahha, on the authority of `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) as saying: `Uzair was -while a young boy -among those captivated by Bikhtinassar. When he was forty, Allah the Almighty granted him wisdom. And, none was more knowledgeable than he, pertaining to the Torah, and he was mentioned with the train of Messengers and Prophets till his name was erased by Allah the Almighty when he asked about the Divine Decree. (This Hadith is Weak and Rejected) and Allah knows best!

Ishaq Ibn Bishr narrated after Sa`id after Abu `Urubah after Qatadah after Al-Hasan after `Abdullah Ibn Salam that `Uzair was the man whom Allah caused to die for a hundred years, then raised him up again.

Ibn Ishaq Ibn Bishr said: I was told by Sa`id Ibn Bashir after Wahb Ibn Munabih: `Uzair was a wise, pious worshipper. One day, he went out to look after some of his properties, when he finished he passed by a ruined place where he was scorched by the blazing sun. So, he entered that ruined place riding on his donkey. He got off the donkey holding two baskets, one full of figs and the other full of grapes. He sat down and brought out a bowl in which he squeezed the grapes and soaked the dried bread he had therein. He ate thereof and then slept on his back, relying his two legs against a wall and started to gaze at the ceiling of the house. He saw some decomposed bones and said: {Oh! How will Allah ever bring it to life after its death?} He did not doubt Allah’s Omnipotence to do this, but he said it in exclamation. Upon this, Allah the Almighty sent the Angel of Death who seized his soul, and thus Allah caused him to die for a hundred years. And, after one hundred years, Allah the Almighty sent to him an Angel who first created his heart to make him heedful, then, he created his two eyes to enable him to see and realize how Allah the Almighty revive the death. Then, the Angel continued to complete his creation once more while he was looking. The, he clothed his bones with flesh, skin and hair. Then, he breathed the soul into him. All this while he is looking and perfectly heedful. The Angel asked him saying: {How long did you remain (dead)? He (the man) said: (Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day} that he was caused to die in the afternoon and then was given life again by the end of day while the sun was still in the sky; that’s why he said: {or part of a day} i.e. not even a whole day. The Angel said: {Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink} i.e. the dried bread and the squeezed grapes that did not alter or turn bad, {they show no change} , and the grapes and the figs did not change as well. As if he began to deny the matter by his heart, the Angel said: do you deny what I have said? {and look at your donkey!} he looked at his donkey and found his bones to be decomposed and became totally ruined. The Angel called upon the donkey’s bones and they answered his call and gathered together from all directions till he was made one whole again –while ‘Uzair was looking and he clothed them with flesh, skin and hair. Then, the Angel breathed life into it and it roused erecting his ears and head towards the sky thinking the Last Hour had come. That was stated in His Saying: {and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh}. And {When this was clearly shown to him, he said, I know (now) that Allah is Able to do all things} .Then, he rode on his donkey back to his village where he seemed unfamiliar to the people and the people looked unfamiliar to him. Even, he did not find his own house easily. When he reached the house, he found a crippled blind old woman at the age of one hundred twenty years old. She was a maid owned by him in the past and he left her while she was only twenty years old. He asked her saying: is this the house of ‘Uzair? She said: Yes, it is. She wept and said: Today, no one ever remembers `Uzair. He told her that he was ‘Uzair and Allah the Almighty caused me to die for one hundred years then He gave me life again. She said: Glory is to be to Allah! We lost ‘Uzair one hundred years ago and never heard anything about him. He said: Verily, I am ‘Uzair. She said: ‘Uzair was a man whose supplications were acceptable by Allah the Almighty, so invoke Allah to return my sight to me to look at you, so if you were ‘Uzair, I would certainly know you. Consequently, he invoked Allah the Almighty, then, he wiped over her eyes and they were recovered and took her by the hand and said: Stand up by the Leave of Allah! She stood up by the Leave of Allah. She looked at him and said: I bear witness that you are ‘Uzair. Then, she set out for the Children of Israel in their meetings and gatherings and ‘Uzair’s son who was about one hundred and eighteen years old and his grandsons, and she called them saying: This is ‘Uzair who came back to you. They belied her, but she said: I am so and so, your maid. He invoked Allah for me and He recovered my eyesight and legs. She added: he claims that Allah caused him to die for one hundred years and then He gave him life again. The people rose up and went to look at him. His son said: my father had a black mole between his shoulders. He disclosed his shoulders and they realized that he was ‘Uzair. The Children of Israel said: ‘Uzair was the only one who committed the whole Torah to his heart and Bikhtinassar burnt it and nothing is left thereof but. what the men can remember, so (if you are the true ‘Uzair) write it down for us. His father, Surukha buried the Torah during that era of Bikhrinassar in a place known to nobody but ‘Uzair. Thus, he took them to that place and brought it out, but unfortunately, the papers were rotten and ruined. Consequently, he sat under the shade of a tree circulated by the Children of Israel and he renovated the Torah for them. At that time, two stars descended from the sky and entered into his mouth whereby he remembered the whole text of the Torah and thus renovated it to the Children of Israel. Thus, {The Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah}. (At-Taubah, 30) for the matter of the two stars, renovating the Torah and charging the affairs of the Children of Israel. He renovated the Torah for them in the land of As-Sawad. The town in which he died is said to be called “Sairabadh.”

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said: Thus he was as said by Allah the Almighty: {And thus We have made of you a sign for the people} i.e. for the Children of Israel. That he was with his sons a young man among old people for he died when he was only forty and was revived on the same age and status. ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas said: he was resurrected after the time of Bikhtinassar. The same was related by Al-Hasan.

Was He a Prophet?

It is well known that ‘Uzair was one of the Prophets sent to the Children of Israel; he came during the interval between Dawud and Sulaiman, and Zakariya and Yahya. At his time, none from among the Children of Israel happened to memorize the Torah, Allah the Almighty inspired him to commit it to his heart and then he recited it to the Children of Israel. Wahb Ibn Munabih said: Allah the Almighty ordered an Angel to descend with light to throw on ‘Uzair .In doing this, he copied the Torah letter by letter till he was finished.

Ibn ‘Asakir narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) that he asked’ Abdullah Ibn Salam about Allah’s Statement: {The Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah}. (At-Taubah, 30) why did they say so? Ibn Salam mentioned his (‘Uzair’s) writing down of the Torah out of his memory, and the saying of the Jews that Musa (Moses) could not get them the Torah but in a book, and that ‘Uzair got it without a book. Thereupon, some of them said: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allah. For this reason, many scholars say: there was a discontinuation pertaining to the transmission of the Torah at the time of ‘Uzair. This is very likely if ‘Uzair was not a Prophet which is adopted by ‘Ata ‘Ibn Abu Rabah and Al-Hasan Al-Basri, and that was narrated by Ishaq Ibn Bishr after Muqatil Ibn Sulaiman after ‘Ata ‘Ibn Abu Rabah as saying: that period witnessed nine things: Bikhtinassar, Sanaa garden, Saba’ garden, Owners of the Ditch, Gasura, Owners of the Cave, Owners of the Elephant, Antioch, and Tubba’.

Ishaq Ibn Bishr said: I was told by Sa’id after Qatadah after Al-Hasan as saying: That period witnessed the issues of ‘Uzair and Bikhtinassar. Moreover, it is transmitted in the Sahih Muslim that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “l am most akin to the son of Mary among the whole of mankind and the Prophets are of different mothers, but of one religion, and no Prophet was raised between me and him (Jesus Christ). ”

Wahb Ibn Munabih said: He was raised between Sulaiman and ‘Isa (Jesus) (Peace be upon them). Ibn ‘Asakir narrated after Anas Ibn Malik and’ Ata ‘Ibn As-Sa’ib as saying: ‘Uzair was raised during the time of Musa Ibn ‘Imran, and that he asked for permission to meet with Musa (Peace be upon him), but he refused because of his asking about the Divine Decree. He left while saying: to die a hundred times, is easier than tasting the humiliation for an hour.

As for what was narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir and others on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas, Nuf AIBakali, Sufyan Ath-Thawri and others that he asked about the Divine Decree and consequently his name was erased from among the names of the Prophets. It is a rejected and unauthentic Hadith that it is likely to be copied from the tales and stories that were invented by the Israelites.

Narrated ‘Abdul Razzaq and Qutaibah Ibn Sa’ id after Ja’far Ibn Sulaiman after Abu ‘Imran Al-Juni after Nuf Al-Bakali as saying: ‘Uzair said to his Lord: 0 Lord! You fashioned the creation, and You mislead whom You will and guide whom You will. It was thus said to him: Turn away from this! But, he returned back. It was again said to him: Turn away from this or your name as a Prophet would be wiped out; I am not to be questioned about My Doing, while they (all creatures) are brought into account pertaining to what they do.

The Group, all but At-Tirmidhi, narrated from the Hadith of Yunus Ibn Yazid after Az-Zuhri after Sa’id and Abu Salamah after Abu Hurairah; also it was narrated by Shu’ aib after Abu Az- Zinad after Al-A’raj after Abu Hurairah as saying: Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “An ant had bitten a Prophet (one amongst the earlier Prophets) and he ordered that the colony of the ants should be burnt. And Allah revealed to him: Because of an ant’s bite you have burnt a community from amongst the communities which sings My glory “. This Prophet was narrated to be ‘Uzair by Ishaq Ibn Bishr after Ibn Juraij afterMuhammad Ibn ‘Abdel Wahhab Ibn Mujahid after his father; also this was narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) and Al-Hasan AIBasri. Allah knows best!

Allah the Almighty says:

{Verily, Qarun (Korah) was of Musa’s (Moses) people, but he behaved arrogantly towards them. And We gave him of the treasures, that of which the keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men. Remember when his people said to him: “Do not exult (with riches, being ungrateful to Allah). Verily Allah likes not those who exult (with riches, being ungrateful to Allah). “But seek with that (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the Hereafter, and forget not your portion of lawful enjoyment in this world,’ and do good as Allah has been good to you, and seek not mischief in the land. Verily, Allah likes not the Mufsidun (those who commit great crimes and sins, oppressors, tyrants, mischief-makers, corrupters).” He said: “This has been given to me only because of the knowledge I possess.” Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him generations, men who were stronger than him in might and greater in the amount (of riches) they had collected? But the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) will not be questioned of their sins (because Allah knows them well, so they will be punished without being called to account). So he went forth before his people in his pomp. Those who were desirous of the life of the world, said: “Ah, would that we had the like of what Qarun (Korah) has been given! Verily he is the owner of a great fortune.” But those who had been given (religious) knowledge said: “Woe to you! The Reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and this none shall attain except those who are AsSabirun (the patient in following the truth). “So We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place. Then he had no group or party to help him against Allah, nor was he one of those who could save themselves. And those who had desired (for a position like) his position the day before, began to say: “Know you not that it is Allah Who enlarges the provision or restricts it to whomsoever He pleases of His slaves. Had it not been that Allah was Gracious to us, He could have caused the earth to swallow us up (also)! Know you not that the disbelievers will never be successful.” That home of the Hereafter (i.e. Paradise), We shall assign to those who rebel not against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes. And the good end is for the Muttaqun (the pious and righteous persons)}. (Al-Qasas, 76-83)

Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) held the opinion that Qarun (Koran) was a paternal cousin to Musa (Peace be upon him). This view is supported by many other narrators, including Ibn Juraij who added that he is Qarun Ibn Yashar Ibn Qahith, while Musa was the son of `Imran Ibn Hafith. Ibn Juraij went further and rejected the viewpoint of Ibn Ishaq that he was a paternal uncle to Musa (Peace be upon him).

Qatadah said: He was called “An-Nur” (the light) for he had a melodious voice while reciting the Torah (Taurat), but he became a hypocrite just like

As-Samiri who became a hypocrite too. Thus, Qarun was destroyed because of his transgression due to the wealth and riches he had.

Shahr Ibn Haushab said: he dragged his garment out of pride and arrogance (conceit).

Allah the Almighty mentioned the numerousness of his wealth and riches so that its keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men. It was also said: the keys were made of leather and that they used to be carried on sixty mules. Allah knows best!

However, he was advised by the godly men from among his people saying: {Do not exult} i.e. do not be arrogant or conceited with riches, being ungrateful to Allah the Almighty. {Verily Allah likes not those who exult (with riches, being ungrateful to Allah). “But seek with that (wealth) which Allah has bestowed on you, the home of the Hereafter} they advise him to direct his endeavors to gain Allah’s Reward in the Hereafter as it is the best of all rewards. But, {and forget not your portion of lawful enjoyment in this world}, i.e. take thereof with your money what is made lawful to you and have the possible lawful joys of this present life. And {do good as Allah has been good to you}, i.e. do good to the creation of Allah Who has been good to you. And {seek not mischief in the land}, i.e. do not harm the people regarding whom you were commanded to do good. If you harm them, He will punish you and take back what He has granted you {Verily, Allah likes not the Mufsidun (those who commit great crimes and sins, oppressors, tyrants, mischief-makers, corrupters)}. His answer to this good advice of his people was nothing but: {He said: This has been given to me only because of the knowledge I possess}, i.e. I do not need what you have said or referred to, as Allah only gave me this for He knew that I deserve it and I am really qualified thereto. Moreover, were it not for that He loves me, He would not grant or give me this.

However, Allah the Almighty refuted his statement saying: {Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him generations, men who were stronger than him in might and greater in the amount (of riches) they had collected? But the Mujrimun (criminals, disbelievers, polytheists, sinners) will not be questioned of their sins (because Allah knows them well, so they will be punished without being called to account)},

i.e. We have destroyed before him generations because of their sins and bad deeds and that they were stronger than Qarun and they had more riches and children than him. So, if what he said was true, We would not punish anyone of those who had more riches than him and his wealth and riches would not be a proof of Our love or care for him. Allah the Almighty says: {And it is not your wealth, nor your children that bring you nearer to Us (i.e. please Allah), but only he who believes (in the Islamic Monotheism), and does righteous deeds (will please Us),. as for such, there will be twofold reward for what they did, and they will reside in the high dwellings Paradise) in peace and security}. (Saba’, 37) and, He says: {Do they think that in wealth and children with which We enlarge them. We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, [it is a Fitnah (trial) in this worldly life so that they will have no share of good things in the Hereafter] but they perceive not}. (Al-Mu’minun, 55,56). Allah’s answer to Qarun’s claims confirms our interpretation of his saying, {This has been given to me only because of the knowledge I possess}. But as for those who claimed that he was a chemist or that he knew the Greatest Name of Allah the Almighty and that he used it to collect wealth, all these are fallacies and not true. For chemistry cannot change the reality of something, and the Greatest Name is of no effect if it is pronounced by a disbeliever. And, Qarun was inherently a disbeliever and apparently a hypocrite. Moreover, the context of the advice given by his people and his answer to them do not support that claim.

Almighty Allah says: {So he went forth before his people in his pomp}, many interpreters mentioned that he went forth before his people in great luxuries (servants, clothes and riding animals). When those who were desirous of the life of the world saw him, they wished to have the same and wondered “what a great fortune he has!” When their saying reached the ears of the godly righteous men they said to them: {Woe to you! The Reward of Allah is better for those who believe and do righteous good deeds}, i.e. the Reward of Allah in the Hereafter is better and higher than this.

Almighty Allah says: {and this none shall attain except those who are As-Sabirun (the patient in following the truth)}, i.e. this -advice, saying and high determination regarding the Hereafter in presence of the joys of this present life -none shall attain except those who were guided and those whose hearts were fixed and minds made stable by the Grace of Allah the Almighty. And, nothing is better than the saying of some of our earlier scholars who said: “Verily, Allah loves penetrative insight in time of suspicious matters and perfect reasoning in time of the presence of lusts” .

Allah the Almighty says: {So, We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place. Then, he had no group or party to help him against Allah, nor was he one of those who could save themselves}, when Allah

the Almighty mentioned his setting forth in his pomp, He said {So, We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place}. As transmitted by Imam Al-Bukhari, Allah’s Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “While a man was walking, clad in a two-piece garment and proud of himself with his hair well-combed, suddenly Allah made him sink into the earth and he will go on sinking into it till the Day of Resurrection. ” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)

Narrated Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) and As-Sadiy that Qarun gave a prostitute a sum of money to say to Musa (Peace be upon him) while he is accompanied with other people that he (Musa) committed with her (adultery). It is said that she did it and consequently, Musa (Peace be upon him) trembled with fear and he performed two Rak`ahs (bowing in prayer) and then said to her: By Allah! Tell me, who hired you to do this? She said: It was Qarun who hired me to do that. Then, she sought Allah’s Forgiveness and repented to Him. Upon that, he (Musa (Peace be upon him)) prostrated himself and invoked Allah against Qarun. Allah the Almighty revealed to him that He subjugated the earth to obey him. Musa (Peace be upon him) commanded the earth to swallow Qarun and his dwelling place. And it was! Allah knows best!

It was also said: That when Qarun went forth before his people in his pomp: guards, mules and clothes, he passed by Musa (Peace be upon him) while he was reminding the people of Allah. When the people saw him, the faces of most of them turned towards him. Musa (Peace be upon him) called him and said: Why do you do this? Qarun replied saying: O Musa! You have been favored with Prophethood and I have been favored with riches. If you want, you may go forth and invoke Allah against me, and I would invoke Him against you. Thereupon, both of them went forth and Musa (Peace be upon him) said: Would you like to begin? Qarun said: Yes, and he made his invocations but they were not answered. When Musa (Peace be upon him) invoked Allah the Almighty against him saying: O Allah! Command the earth to transgress today. Allah revealed to him that He did. Then, Musa (Peace be upon him) said: O earth! Take them! And it took them to their feet. Then, he said: take them! And it took them to their knees. Then, he said: take them! And it took them to their shoulders. Then, he said: O earth! Bring their

.riches and treasures! They were brought till they saw them, then Musa (Peace be upon him) pointed with his hand saying: Go, you sons of Laui! And they sank into the earth.

It was narrated from Qatadah that he said: “They would sink into the earth till the Day of Resurrection.” Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said: “They sank into the earth till they reached the seventh earth.”

Allah the Almighty says: {Then he had no group or party to help him against Allah, nor was he one of those who could save themselves}, i.e. he could not help himself or get help from others. Allah the Almighty states: {Then he will have no power, nor any helper}. (At-Tariq, 10) When the

people saw what happened to Qarun and his treasures of sinking into the earth and complete destruction, those who had desired for a position like his position the day before regretted and thanked Allah the Almighty and hence they said:

{Had it not been that Allah was Gracious to us, He could have caused the earth to swallow us up (also)! Know you not that the disbelievers will never be successful}.

Then, Allah the Almighty informs us that {That home of the Hereafter}, i.e. Paradise is prepared only for those {who rebel not against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes} and then He says: {And the good end is for the Muttaqun (the pious and righteous persons)}.

This story of Qarun might have taken place before they get out of Egypt for Allah the Almighty says: {So, We caused the earth to swallow him and his dwelling place}, or it might have taken place after that during the Diaspora. Allah knows best!

However, Almighty Allah mentions the dispraise of Qarun in several Verses on the Glorious Qur’an. Allah says: {And indeed We sent Musa (Moses) with Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, .verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), and a manifest authority. To Fir’aun (Pharaoh), Haman and Qarun (Korah), but they called (him): “A sorcerer, a liar!”}. (Ghafir, 23, 24) and, in Surah Al-‘Ankabut after mentioning ‘Ad, Thamud, Pharaoh, Haman and Qarun, He says: {And (We destroyed also) Qarun (Korah), Fir’aun (Pharaoh), and Haman. And indeed Musa (Moses) came to them with lessons, clear Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc.), but they were arrogant in the land, yet they could not outstrip Us (escape Our punishment). So, We punished each (of them) for his sins,. of them were some on whom We sent Hasib (a violent wind with shower of stones) [as on the people of Lut (Lot)], and of them were some who were overtaken by As-Saihah [torment -awful cry, (as Thamud or Shu’aib’s People)], and of them were some whom We caused the earth to swallow [as Qarun (Korah)], and of them were some whom We drowned [as the people ofNuh (Noah), or Fir’aun (Pharaoh) and his-people]. It was not Allah Who wronged them, but they wronged themselves}. (Al-‘Ankabut, 39, 40) so, he who was swallowed by the earth was Qarun, and those whom were drowned were Pharaoh, Haman and their troops because they were sinful.

Imam Ahmed, in his Musnad, reported that once the Prophet (Peace be upon him) remembered the prayer and said: “He who observes it regularly and properly, it will be light, evidence and salvation for him on the Day of Resurrection. And, he who does not observe it regularly and properly, there will neither be -for him -light, nor evidence, nor salvation. And, on the Day of Resurrection, he will be (gathered) with Qarun, Fir’aun (Pharaoh), Haman and Ubaiy Ibn Khalaf”.

Allah the Almighty says:

{Indeed there was for Saba’ (Sheba) a sign in their dwelling-place -two gardens on the right hand and on the left,; (and it was said to them:) “Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him.’ A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord! But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent against them Sail AI-‘Arim (flood released from the dam), and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit, and tamarisks, and some few lote-trees. Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers). And We placed, between them and the towns which We had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made the stages (of journey) between them easy (saying): “Travel in them safely both by night and day.” But they said: “Our Lord! Make the stages between our journey longer,” and they wronged themselves; so We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally. Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast, grateful (person)}. (Saba’, 15-19)

Scholars of genealogy -among them was Muhammad Ibn Ishaq -said: the name of Saba’ is `Abd Shams Ibn Yashjub Ibn Ya`rub Ibn Qahtan. He was the first to take captives and he was very generous to the people. As-Suhaili said: it is said that he was the first person to be crowned, and some scholars said he was Muslim and that he composed poetry in which he brought good news to the advent of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). This last saying was attributed to Ibn Didya in his book titled: [At-Tanwir fi Maulid Al-Bashir An-Nadhir]

Imam Ahmed said: I have been told by Abu `Abdur Rahman, after `Abdullah Ibn Luhai` ah, after `Abdullah Ibn Da`lah saying: I heard `Abdullah Ibn Al-`Abbas as saying: A man asked Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) about Saba’, whether it was a man, a woman, or a name of a land? He (Peace be upon him) said: Verily, he was a man to whom ten sons were born. Six thereof inhabited the Yemen andfour Sham (Syria). Those in Yemen were: Madhhaj, Kindah, Al-Azd, Al-Ash `ariyun, Anmar and Himyar. And those who inhabited Syria were: Laghm, Judham, `Amilah and Ghassan.” The Questioner was Farwah Ibn Musaik Al-Ghatifi.

This means that the term Saba’ covers all these tribes; among them also were At- Tababi `ah (Sing. Tubba` ) in the Yemen. Their kings used to put crowns on as were done by kings of Persia. The Arabs used to call whomsoever rules over the Yemen and Hadramaut “Tubba`”, as they used to call kings of Sham (Syria) and the Arab Peninsula “Caesar”, and the ruler of Persia “Khusrau”, the ruler of Egypt Fir` aun (Pharaoh), the ruler of Abyssinia “Negus”, and the ruler of India “Ptolemes”, and Bilqis was from among the Himyar kings who ruled the Yemen. They lived in happiness and easiness, with abundance of sustenance: fruits, plants, etc. and they were righteous people who followed the Straight Path, but when they altered the Grace of Allah and denied it, they inevitably incurred to themselves and their peoples destruction and devastation.

Muhammad Ibn Ishaq narrating from Wahb Ibn Munabah said: Allah the Almighty sent them thirteen Prophets. And, As-Sadi claimed that Allah the Almighty sent them twelve thousand Prophets. Allah knows best!
The point is, when they replaced guidance with misguidance and prostrated themselves before the sun instead of Allah the Almighty, the matter which took place during the era of Bilqis and her ancestors and that which continued till Allah sent over them a flood released from the dam. Allah the Almighty explained: {But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent against them Sail Al-`Arim (flood released from the dam), and We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit, and tamarisks, and some few lote trees. Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers)}.

Many scholars mentioned that the Dam of Ma’rab was built to keep water behind two great mountains, and when the water raised, the people began to implant orchards and fruitful trees and many kinds of vegetables. It is said that the originator of the darn was Saba’ Ibn Ya` rub who changed the course of seventy valleys forcing them to pour out water therein. In addition, he forced the water to get out from thirty springs or holes, but he died before completing it. So, the tribe of Himyar perfected it and it was of the space of one square league. Thereupon, they were living in happiness and abundance. Qatada and others said: the woman (from among them) would go putting a basket on her head, and it would be filled with fresh, ripe fruits, and they said that the air they breathed was so clean and pure that neither flies, nor harmful germs were found in their land. Allah the Almighty says: {Indeed there was for Saba’ (Sheba) a sign in their dwelling -place- two gardens on the right hand and on the left; (and it was said to them:) Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be grateful to Him. A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!} (Saba’, 15) and, {And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: If you give thanks (by accepting Faith and worshipping none but Allah), I will give you more (of My Blessings); but if you are thankless (i.e. disbelievers), verily My punishment is indeed severe}. (Ibrahim, 7) But, when they adorned other than Allah the Almighty and arrogantly dealt with His Grace -the stages (of journey) between them were easy in which they used to travel safely both by night and day -and asked Him to make the stages between their journeys longer and severer. Thus, they asked to turn the good into what is bad like the Children of Israel who asked Allah the Almighty to turn Manna and quails into herbs, cucumbers, Fum (wheat or garlic), lentils and onions. Thereupon, they were deprived that great blessing and comprehensive grace; their land was destroyed and they themselves were scattered allover the globe. Allah the Almighty says: {But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent against them Sail Al-`Arim (flood released from the dam)}.
Many scholars said: Allah the Almighty sent mice or rats on the bases of the darn, and when they discovered this they brought cats to eat them up, but all was in vain. The bases became very weak and finally the darn collapsed and the water drowned everything. Their good fruitful trees turned into -as explained by Allah the Almighty -bad ones: {And We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit, and tamarisks}. And {and some few lote-trees} for they produce Nabk which is very few among the countless thorns they have. Allah the Almighty says: {Like this We requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers)} i.e. We only punish -with this severe punishment those who disbelieved in Us, belied Our Messengers, disobeyed Our Orders, and violated Our Boundaries.

Allah the Almighty says: {So We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all totally} i.e. after the destruction of their gardens, properties and land, they needed to travel and move away. Thus, they scattered in different parts of the land as some of them moved to the Hejaz, and Khuza’ ah moved to Mecca. Some of them also moved to Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah, they were the first to inhabit it. Then, they were followed by three tribes from the Jews: the Banu Qainuqa’, Banu Quraizah, and Banu An-Nadir. The Jews made coalitions with the Aus and Khazraj and lived there (till the time of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)). Some of them, moved to Sham (Syria) and afterwards they converted to Christianity: Ghassan, Amilah, Bahra’, Lukham, Judham, Tanukh, Taghlub, and others.

Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, in his The Prophet’s Biography [Kitab As-Sirah], said that the first to quit the Yemen before the Sail Al-‘Arim (the flood released from the dam) was’ Amr Ibn ‘Amir Al-Lukhami. Lukham was the son of ‘Adyi Ibn Al-Harith Ibn Murrah Ibn Azd Ibn Zaid Ibn Muha’ Ibn ‘Amr Ibn ‘Uraib Ibn Yashjub Ibn Zaid Ibn Kahlan Ibn Saba’. It is said also by Ibn Hisham: Lukham Ibn ‘Adyi Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Gharib Ibn Saba’. Ibn Ishaq said: the reason behind his moving from Yemen as I was told by Abu Zaid Al-Ansari that he saw a mouse or rat digging beneath the dam of Ma’rab which was used to keep the water behind, so he realized that the dam would not stand so long, so he intended to move from the Yemen. However, he tricked his people by ordering his youngest son to slap him on the face before the people. The son did what he was ordered to and ‘Amr said: I would never live in a place where my youngest son slapped me on the face. And he offered his property to be sold. The noblemen of the Yemen said: seize the opportunity of ‘Amr’s rage and buy all his property. Hence, he moved along with his children and their offspring. The Azd said: we never leave ‘Amr Ibn ‘Amir, so they sold their properties and accompanied him in his fleeing (without knowing his real intentions). They arrived at the land of `Ak who fought against them and their war had its ups and downs.

Finally, they departed from the land of ‘Ak and dispersed in the lands. Ibn Jafnah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn ‘Amir went to Sham (Syria), Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj went to Yathrib (Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah), Khuza’ah went to Marran, Azd As-Sarah went to As-Sarah, and Azd ‘Amman went to ‘Amman, then Allah the Almighty sent the flood against the dam and it was totally collapsed. The Glorious Qur’an bears witness to this incident.

As-Sadi narrated the like and Muhammad Ibn Ishaq said that ‘Amr Ibn `Amir was a priest. Others said that his wife was Tarifah Bint Al-Khair Al-Himyariyah and that she was a priestess. She foretold the destruction of their country as if they saw an indication in that rat or mouse, so they did what they did, and Allah knows best! His whole story was mentioned in the Exegesis on the authority of `Ikriamh after Ibn Abu Hatim.

However, not all the people of Saba’ moved from the Yemen after the collapsing of the dam, but the majority thereof stayed there. Only the people of the Dam (Ma’rab) went away and dispersed in the land. This is expressed in the Hadith mentioned earlier that was narrated by `Abdullah Ibn `Abbas, that the majority of the Yemenites did not movem from the Yemen. Only four tribes quitted and six tribes stayed. They continued to live there and the ruling was kept by them and the Tababi`ah till they were deprived of their own self-ruling -for about seventy years -by the army sent by the Negus under the command of Abraha and Aryat. Then, it was regained by Saif Ibn Dhi Yazan AI-Himyari shortly before Prophet Muhammad’s birth. Then, Allah’s Prophet (Peace be upon him) sent to the Yemen `Ali Ibn Abu Talib and Khalid Ibn Al-Walid, then Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari and Mu`adh Ibn Jabal to invite the people to embrace Islam. Then, Al-Aswad Al-`Ansi seized the Yemen and drove out the deputies of Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him). During the era of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Al-Aswad Al-`Ansi was killed and the Muslims had the upper hand in the Yemen.

Allah the Almighty says:

{And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman AIHikmah (wisdom and religious understanding) saying: “Give thanks to Allah.”And whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) his own self. And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All-Rich (Free of all needs), Worthy of all praise. And (remember) when Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: “O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed. And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years -give thanks to Me and to our parents. Unto Me is the final destination. But if they (both) strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience.Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do. “O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place). “O my son! Aqim-As-Salat (perform As-Salat), enjoin (on people) Al-Ma’ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all that is good), and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists of all kinds and all that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befalls you. Verily, these are some of the important commandments (ordered by Allah with no exemption). “And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.” “And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the ass”}. (Luqman, 12-19)

He is Luqman Ibn ‘Anqa’ Ibn Sadun. Or, as stated by As-Suhaili from Ibn Jarir and Al-Qutaibi that he is Luqman Ibn Tharan who was from among the people of Aylah (Jerusalem).

He was a pious man who exerted himself in worship and who was blessed with wisdom. Also, it is said that he was a judge during the lifetime of Prophet Dawud (Peace be upon him). And, Allah knows best.

Narrated Sufyan Ath- Thawri from Al-Ash’ath after ‘Ikrimah on the authority of Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) as saying: He was an Ethiopian slave who worked as a carpenter. Qatadah narrated from’ Abdullah Ibn Az-Zubair as saying: I asked Jabir Ibn ‘Abdullah about Luqman. He said: “He was short with a flat nose. He was from Nubia”

Narrated Yahia Ibn Sa’ id Al-Ansari after Sa’ id Ibn Al-Musayib his saying: Luqman belonged to the black men of Egypt. He had thick lips and Allah the Almighty granted him wisdom but not Prophethood. Al-Awza’i said: I was told by ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Harmalah: that a black man came to Sa’ id Ibn AIMusayib asking him for charity. Sa’ id said: do not feel distressed for your black color because there were from among the best of all people three blackmen: Bilal Ibn Rabah, Mahja’ (the freed-slave of ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab), and Luqman, the wise who was black, from Nubia and whose lips were thick.

Narrated Al-A’mash after Mujahid: Luqman was a black huge slave, thick-lipped, and crackedfooted. ‘Umar Ibn Qais said: “Luqman was a black slave, thick-lipped and cracked-footed. It happened while he was preaching some people, a man came to him and said: aren’t you the one who used to look after the sheep with me at such and such place? Luqman said: yes, I am! The man said: then, what made you of that position? Luqman said: telling the truth and keeping silent regarding what does not concern me.” (This Hadith was narrated by Ibn J arir after lbn Hamid after Al-Hakam)

Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by Abu Zar’ ah that he was told by Safwan after Al- W alid after ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Abu Yazid Ibn Jabir who said: “Allah the Almighty raised Luqman’s status for his wisdom. A man used to know him saw him and said: Aren’t you the slave of so and so who used to look after my sheep not so long in the past? Luqman said: yes! The man said: What raised you to this high state I see? Luqman said: the Divine Decree, repaying the trust, telling the truth and discarding what does not concern me. ”

Narrated Ibn Wahb: I was told by ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Ayyash Al-Fityani after’ Umar, the freed slave of ‘Afrah as saying: “A man came to Luqman, the wise and asked: Are you Luqman? Are you the slave of so and so? He said: “Yes!” The man said: You are the black shepherd! Luqman said: As for my black color, it is obviously apparent, so what makes you so astonished? The man said: You became frequently visited by the people who pleasingly accept your judgments! Luqman said: 0 cousin! If you do what I am telling you, you will be like this. The man said: What is it? Luqman said: Lowering my gaze, watching my tongue, eating what is lawful, keeping my chastity, undertaking my promises, fulfilling my commitments, being hospitable to guests, respecting my neighbors, and discarding what does not concern me. All these made me the one you are looking at.”

One day Abu Ad-Darda’ mentioned Luqman the wise and said: He was not granted wisdom because of wealth, children, lineage, or given habits, but he was self-restrained, taciturn, deep-thinking, and he never slept during the day. In addition, no one has ever seen him spitting, clearing his throat, squeezing the lemon, answering the call of nature, bathing, observing trivialities, or foolishly laughing. He was very eloquent and well-versed. He did not weep or cry when all his children died. Finally, he used to frequent the princes and men of authority to mediate and think thoroughly and find admonition. So, because of all these he was granted that great wisdom.

Some people claimed that he was offered Prophethood, and that he feared not to be able to carry out its requirements and obligations. Thus, he chose to have wisdom for it is easier -this cannot be totally true -and Allah knows best! ‘Ikrimah also narrated that: Luqman was a Prophet.1

1This narration is very weak for the sub-narrator, Al-Ja’ fi is mentioned by Imams Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i among the Weak Narrators.

However, the majority of scholars are of the view that he was a wise man and not a Prophet. Moreover, he was mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an and was highly praised by Allah the Almighty Who narrates his advice to his own son in which he says: {O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed}, so he forbade his son and warned him against joining others in worship with Allah. Imam Al-Bukhari said: I was told by Qutaibah after Jarir after Al-A’mash after Ibrahim after ‘Alqamah after ‘Abdullah as saying: “When the Verse: {It is those who believe and do not confuse their belief with wrong (i.e. joining others in worship with Allah} (Al-An’ am, 82) was revealed, we said: “0 Allah’s Messenger! Who is there amongst us who has not done wrong to himself?” He (Peace be upon him) replied: “It is not as you say, for ‘wrong’ in the Verse and’ do not confuse their belief with wrong’ means ‘SHIRK’ (i.e. joining others in worship with Allah). Haven’t you heard Luqman’s saying to his son, {O my son! Join not others in worship with Allah, verily joining others in worship with Allah is a great wrong indeed}.” (Luqman, 13)

Then, Allah informs us of His advice to mankind to take care of parents. He states their rights on the children and orders us to be kind with them even if they were polytheists. But, one should not obey them if they invite him to join others in worship with Allah. Then Allah resumes Luqman’s advice to his son saying: {O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place)}, i.e. he forbids him to do wrong to the people even in the slightest way, for Allah will bring it forth and bring him to account on the Day of Resurrection. Allah Almighty says: {Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom (or a small ant)} (An-Nisa’, 40) and, {And We shall set up balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything. And if

there be the weight of a mustard seed, We will bring it. And Sufficient are We to take account} (Al-Anbiya’, 47) and, he told him if that wrong deed was equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, or if it was in a solid rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth for He knows its exact place, {Verily, Allah is Subtle (in bringing out that grain), Well-Aware (of its place)}. Allah Almighty also says: {And with Him are the keys of the Ghaib (all that is hidden), none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record} (Al-An’am, 59) and, {And there is nothing hidden in the heaven and the earth but it is in a Clear Book (i.e. Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)} (An-Naml, 75) and, {the All-Knower of the Unseen, it will come to you; not even the weight of an atom (or a small ant) or less than that or greater escapes His Knowledge in .the heavens or in the earth but it is in a Clear Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz)} (Saba’, 3).

As-Sadiy claimed that the rock mentioned in the Verse is that which lies beneath the seventh earth. But, this claim is totally rejected for the word “rock” is indefinite and if his claim were true, it would be “the rock”. So, “rock” here means any rock whatever and not a particular one. Narrated Abu Sa’id Al- Khudri after Prophet Muhammad (Peace be up9n him) as saying: “If any of you performs deeds in a solid rock that has no door or hole, his deeds, whatever they are, will come out (to the public).” Then, Luqman said: {O my son! Aqim-As-Sa.lah (perform As-Salah)}, i.e. perform it properly and in due time. Then, he said: {enjoin (on people) Al-Ma’ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all that is good), and forbid (people) from Al-Munkar (i.e. disbelief in the Oneness of Allah, polytheists of all kinds and all that is evil and bad)},

i.e. with your full power, with your hand, tongue and if you could not, let it be with your heart (i.e. reject and resent it). Then, he advised him to observe patience saying: {and bear with patience whatever befalls you}, for if one enjoins what is good and forbids the evil, he will probably regarded as enemy to certain people (but, the final reward would surely be his). For this, he commanded him to observe patience. {Verily, these are some of the important commandments (ordered by Allah with no exemption)} that are inevitable and cannot be neglected.

Allah the Almighty says: {And turn not your face away from men with pride}, narrated Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id Ibn Jubair, Ad-Dahhak, Yazid Ibn Al-Asam, Abu Al-Jawza’ and others: This means one shouldn’t be showy or arrogant.

Allah the Almighty says: {nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster}, here, Luqman forbids his son to strut in his walk. Allah the Almighty says: {And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth, nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height}. (Al-

Isra’, 37) i.e. you will neither be able to tread the whole earth, nor penetrate it with your fast walking or strong footsteps, nor will you be as high as mountains with your showing-off or arrogance. So, know yourself well, for you are only a human being (created to worship Allah Alone). The Prophetic Hadith states: “While a man was walking, dragging his dress with pride, he was caused to be swallowed by the earth and will go on sinking in it till the Day of Resurrection.” (Transmitted by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Sahih) Another Prophetic Hadith states that: “Beware dragging your dress with pride, for this is boastfulness which is not loved (liked) by Allah ” Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster}.

After Luqman forbids his son to walk boastfully, he orders him to be moderate in his walking, saying: {And be moderate (or show no insolence) in your walking}, i.e. do not walk fast or too slow, rather take a course in-between, {And the (faithful) slaves of the Most Gracious (Allah) are those who walk on the earth in humility and sedateness, and when the foolish address them (with bad words) they reply back with mild words of gentleness}. (Al-Furqan, 63) Then, Luqman says: {and lower your voice}, i.e. if you talk, do not raise your voice very loudly because the braying of the ass is the harshest of all voices.

Narrated Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: “When you hear the crowing of cocks, ask for Allah’s Blessings for (their crowing indicates that) they have seen an angel. And when you hear the braying of donkeys, seek Refuge with Allah from Satan for (their braying indicates) that they have seen a Satan.” (Transmitted by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Sahih). For this, it is forbidden to raise one’s voice needlessly. But, raising the voice with the Adhan (the Call to Prayer) and in the battlefield is permitted.

These are the pieces of advice given by Luqman to his son that are mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an. Many others have been mentioned in a book titled Hikmat Luqman (Luqman’s Wisdom). From this valuable book, we cite the following: Narrated Imam Ahmed that Ibn ‘Umar (May Allah be pleased with both of them) said: We were told by Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) that: “Luqman, the wise used to say: If anything was entrusted to Allah, He would preserve it.”9

Narrated Ibn Hatim that Al-Qasim Ibn Mukhaimirah reported that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: “0 my son! Beware of masking for it is treason by night and dispraise during the day. ”

Narrated Damurah after As-Sariy Ibn Yahia as saying: Luqman said to his son: “On my son! Verily, wisdom has brought the indigent to the courts of kings. ”

I was told by my father after ‘Abdah lbn Sulaiman after Ibn Al-Mubarak after ‘Abdur Rahman Al-Mas’ udi after ‘Aun Ibn ‘Abdullah as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! If you come to a people’s setting, start them with salutation (Saying As-Salamu ‘Alaikum (Peace be with you)), then, take a side and do not utter a word till they speak. If you find them observing the Remembrance of Allah, join them. But, if they observe anything else, turn away from them and seek others (who remember Allah Almighty). ”

I was told by my father after ‘Amr Ibn ‘Uthman after Damurah Ibn Hafs Ibn ‘Umar as saying: “Luqman placed a bag of mustards beside him and started to advise his son, giving him with every piece of advice a mustard till it all ran out. He said: 0 my son! I gave you advice that if a mountain was given, it would split. He said: then, his son was as if struck. ”

Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated: “Take care of the black men for three from among them are of the people of Paradise: Luqman the wise, Negus and Bilal (the Caller to Prayer).” (However, this Hadith is odd and rejected).

Imam Ahmed, in his book Az-Zuhd (Asceticism), mentioned Luqman’ s biography and many other valuable things. He said: I was told by Waki’ after Sufyan after an unidentified man after Mujahid as saying: Allah’s Statement: {And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah}, i.e. wisdom and religious understanding. He added: he was not a Prophet. The same was narrated by Wahb Ibn Munabih.

Waki’ told us after Sufyan after Ash’ath after ‘Ikrimah after Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) that he said: Luqman was an Ethiopian slave.

Aswad told us after Hammad after ‘Ali Ibn Yazid after Sa’id Ibn Al-Musaiyb as saying: Luqman was a tailor.

Saiyar told us after Ja’far after Malik Ibn Dinar as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Take Allah’s Obedience as your trade, and you will gain profits without having any merchandises.”

Yazid told us after Abul Ashhab after Muhammad Ibn Wasi’ as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Fear Allah and do not let the people notice that you fear Him to gain honor (from them) while your heart is sinful.”

Y azid Ibn Hamn and Waki’ told us after Abul AShhab after Khalid Ar-Rab’i as saying: “Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who worked as a carpenter. One day, his master ordered him to slaughter a goat and bring him the most pleasant and delicious two parts thereof. Luqman did so and brought him the tongue and heart. The master asked: Did not you find anything more pleasant than these? Luqman said: No! After a while, the master ordered him to slaughter a goat and to throw the most malignant two parts thereof. Luqman slaughtered the goat and threw the tongue and heart. The master exclaimed and said: I ordered you to bring me the most delicious parts thereof and you brought me the tongue and heart, and I ordered you to throwaway the most malignant parts thereof and you threw the tongue and heart, how can this be? Luqman said: Nothing can be more pleasing than these if they were good, and nothing can be more malicious than these if they were malignant.”

Dawud Ibn Rashid told us after Ibn Al-Mubarak after Mu’amir after Abu ‘Uthman, a man from Basrah, as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Do not wish for befriending a fool that he may think you approve his foolishness. And, do not take the wise man’s rage easily that he may abstain from you.”

Dawud Ibn Usaid told us after Isma’il Ibn ‘Ayyash after Damdam Ibn Zar’ah after Shuraih Ibn ‘Ubaid Al-Hadrami after ‘Abdullah Ibn Zaid as saying: Luqman said: “Verily, Allah’s Hand is on the mouths of wise men; none of them speaks but with what Allah assigned for him.”

‘Abdur Razzaq told us that he heard Ibn Juraij as saying: I used to mask my head at night and `Umar said to me: Did not you hear that Luqman had said: masking during the day is humiliation and at night is dispraise. So, why do you mask yourself at night? He said: “Luqman was not indebted.”

I was told by Hasan after Al-Junaid after Sufyan as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! I have never regretted because of keeping silent. If words are silver, silence is golden.”

I was told by ‘Abdul Samad and Waki’ after Abul Ashhab after Qatadah as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Set apart with evil and it will set apart with you, for evil begets nothing but evil.”

Narrated Imam Ahmed: I was told by ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Mahdi after Nafi’ Ibn ‘Umar after Ibn Abu Malikah after ‘Ubaid Ibn ‘Umair as saying: Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: “0 my son! Choose between gatherings (of people) precisely! If you find a gathering in which Allah is mentioned, sit yourself with them. Thus, if you are knowledgeable, your knowledge will benefit you; but, if you are ignorant, they will teach you; and if Allah wishes to do them good, you will be benefited therewith. 0 my son! Do not sit in a gathering in which Allah is not mentioned! Because if you are knowledgeable, your knowledge will not benefit you; and if you are ignorant, they will add to your ignorance; and if Allah wishes to afflict them with harm, you will be afflicted with them. 0 my son! Do not rejoice at seeing a strong man who sheds the blood of the faithful, for Allah appoints for him a killer that does not ever die.”

Abu Mu’awiyah told us after Hisham Ibn ‘Urwah after his father as saying: “Wisdom dictates: 0 my son: Let your speech be good and your face be smiling, you will be more loved by the people than those who give them provisions.” And, he said: “It is stated in the wisdom -or the Torah – : “Kindness is the head of wisdom.” And, he said: “It is stated in the Torah: “As you show mercy (to others), mercy will be shown to you.” And, he said: “It is stated in the wisdom: “You will gain what you give (or, harvest what you grow).” And, he said: “It is stated in the wisdom: “Love your friend and the friend of your father.”

`Abdur Razzaq told us after Mu’amir after Ayyub after Abu Qulabah as saying: Luqman was once asked: Who is the best one in terms of patience? He said: It is the one who practices no harm after observing patience. Those who asked him said: Who is the best one in terms of knowledge? He said: It is he who adds to his own knowledge through the knowledge of others. They asked: Who is the best from among the whole people? He said: It is the wealthy. They said: Is it the one who has properties and riches? He said: No! But, it is the one if whose good was sought, he would not hold it back or prevent it. And, it is the one who does not need anything from others.

Narrated Sufyan Ibn ‘Uyaynah: Luqman was asked: Who is the worst of all people? He replied: It is the one who does not feel shame if found committing a sinful deed.

Abu As-Samad told us after Malik Ibn Dianr as saying: I found some pieces of-wisdom as follows: “Allah Almighty scatters and wastes the bones of those who give religious opinions that go with the people’s lusts and desires.” And, “There is no good for you that you learn something new while you do not practice what you have learnt previously. This is like a man who gathere.d a pile of dry wood, then tried to carry it but couldn’t. Thereupon, he collected a second one.”

‘Abdullah Ibn Ahmed said: I was told by Al-Hakam Ibn Abu Zuhair Ibn Musa after Al-Faraj Ibn Fudalah after Abu Sa’id as saying: Luqman said to his son: “0 my son! Let only the pious men eat your food, and consult the scholars over your affairs.” These were what Imam Ahmed quoted from the wisdom of Luqman, and I added some that he did not transmit and indeed, he -Imam Ahmed -quoted things that I did not. And, Allah knows best!

Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by my father after Al-‘Abbas Ibn Al-Walid after Zaid Ibn Yahya Ibn ‘Ubaid Al-Khuza’i after Sa’id Ibn Bashir after Qatadah as saying: Allah Almighty enabled Luqman to choose between Prophethood and wisdom and he (Luqman) preferred wisdom to Prophethood. Then, Gabriel came while he was asleep and poured the wisdom over him. And, he began to pronounce it the next morning.

Sa’id said: I heard Qatadah as saying: It was said to Luqman: How did you prefer wisdom to Prophethood when you were enabled to choose between them? He said: If Allah were to assign me with Prophethood, I would accept it and try hard to win His Pleasure, but He enabled me to choose. I feared of being too weak for Prophethood, so I chose wisdom.

This narration is not perfectly authentic or sound for that sub-narrator, Sa’ id Ibn Bashir, is not a trustworthy one. However, many from among our earlier scholars, foremost among whom were: Mujahid, Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyb and Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) were of the viewpoint that Allah’s Statement that reads: {And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah (wisdom)}, means: discretion and religious understanding. Thereupon, he was not a Prophet and nothing has been revealed to him Al- Wahi (Divine Inspiration).

Allah the Almighty says:

{And (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him» recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam (Habil and Qabil) in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to Allah), it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former: “I will surely kill you.” The former said: “Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious).” “If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you: for I fear Allah, the Lord of the `Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists).” “Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire; and that is the recompense of the Zalimin (polytheists and wrong-doers);” So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair-seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers; Then Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother; He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted}. (Al–Ma’idah, 27-31)

Narrated As-Sadiy on the authority of Abu Malik and Abu Salih after Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) and on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud and other Companions that Adam (Peace be upon him) used to get the male brought by one birth married to the female brought by the other. Hence, it was supposed that Abel would get married to Cain’s sister who was better and more beautiful than anyone else. At the same time, Cain wanted to keep her for himself. Adam (Peace be upon him) ordered him to allow’ Abel to marry her, but he totally refused. Then, Adam (Peace be upon him) ordered both (Abel and Cain) to offer a sacrifice to Allah Almighty. Meanwhile, Adam set forth towards Mecca to perform Pilgrimage. Just before leaving, Adam tried to entrust (the affairs of) his children to the heavens, the earth and finally to the mountains, but all declined to shoulder the (heavy) trust. Thereupon, Cain accepted the trust and after Adam went away they (Abel and Cain) offered their sacrifices to Allah. Abel offered a fat she-goat, while Cain offered a bundle of bad plants. Later, a fire came down from heaven and consumed the sacrifice offered by Abel and left untouched that of Cain. Cain became livid with rage and said to his brother: I will kill you so as not to marry my sister, Abel said: {Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}.

‘Abdullah Ibn `Amr (May Allah be pleased with both of them) said: By Allah! The murdered (Abel) was stronger (than the murderer, Cain), but he refused to stretch his hand against his brother to kill him due to his piety and God-fearing.

Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir mentioned that Adam (Peace be upon him) was present there when they offered their sacrifices. After Abel’s sacrifice was accepted, Cain said to his father, Adam: “It was accepted only from him because you invoked Allah for his sake.” And, he secretly intended something against his brother. One day, Abel was late and Adam sent Cain to look for him. The two brothers met and Cain said: “Your sacrifice was accepted and mine was not.” Abel said: “{Verily, Allah accepts only from those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}.” Cain got angry and hit his brother with an iron rod and Abel fell dead at once.

It was said: Cain killed Abel by throwing a rock at his head while he was asleep. It was also said: Cain choked Abel violently and bit him to death as beasts do. However, Abel’s saying when Cain threatened to kill him: {If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you: for I fear Allah, the Lord of the” Alamin (mankind, jinn, and all that exists)} (Al-Ma’idah, 28) indicated his good morals and ethics, his fear from Allah, and perfect piety that he may harm his brother, in contrast with the odious deed intended by his brother, Cain. For this, Abu Bakrah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: “‘When two Muslims confront each other and the one amongst them attacks his brother with a weapon, both of them get into Hell-Fire.’ He (Ahnaf, one of the sub-narrators) said: ‘I said, or it was said: Messenger of Allah! It may be the case of one who kills, but what about the slain (why he would be put in Hell-Fire)?’ Thereupon, he (Peace be upon him) said: ‘He also intended to kill his companion. ”

Allah the Almighty says: {Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin (on yourself) as well as yours, then you will be one of the denizens of the Fire; and that is the recompense of the Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)}. (Al-Ma’idah, 29) i.e. I do not intend to fight against you though I am myself far stronger and tougher than you are, but you will {draw my sin on yourself as well as yours}, i.e. you will bear the sin of murdering me along with your previous sins.

Narrated Imam Ahmed, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi on the authority of Sa’d Ibn Abu Waqqas his statement upon the ordeal of `Uthman Ibn `Affan that reads: I testify that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “There will be soon a period of turmoil in which the one who sits will be better than one who stands and the one who stands will be better than one who walks and the one who walks will be better than one who runs.” Someone said: ‘Allah’s Messenger! What is your opinion if someone entered my home and stretched his hand to kill me?’ Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: ‘Be just like the son of Adam (Abel). “Narrated by Ibn Mardwiyah after Hudhaifah Ibn Al- Yaman in another wording as saying: “Be just like the best of Adam’s two sons.”

Imam Ahmed transmitted after Mu`awiyah and Waki` their saying: We were told by Al- A ` mash on the authority of `Abdullah Ibn Murrah after Masruq after `Abdullah Ibn Mas`ud (May Allah be pleased with him) as saying: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said, “None (no human being) is killed or murdered (unjustly), but a part of responsibility for the crime is laid on the first son of Adam who invented the tradition of killing (murdering on earth). ” (Ahmed’s Musnad)

However, there is a cave, called the “Blood Cave”, in a mountain located to the northern part of Syria. It is thought to be the scene of the crime where Cain killed his brother Abel. The people living there came to know this through the People of the Book (Christians and Jews) and only Allah Almighty knows the validity or realness of this. .Al-Hafiz Ibn `Asakir mentioned in the biography of Ahmed Ibn Katheer that “He (Ahmed) saw in a dream Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him), Abu Bakr, `Umar and Abel. Ahmed came to know from Abel -who took an oath of that- it was his own blood (that was spilt there (in that very cave)). Abel said that he had asked Allah Almighty to make the invocations and supplications offered in that place acceptable. Allah accepted his own invocations and His Messenger, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) believed in that and said: I (Allah’s Messenger), Abu Bakr and `Umar used to visit that place every Thursday. “However, it is to be stated that this narration represents only a vision. Even if it were true, no religious ruling can ever be based on such a thing; and Allah knows best!

Allah Almighty says: {Then, Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him how to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother? “Then he became one of those who regretted}. (Al-Ma’idah, 31) Some interpreters said: “After Cain had killed his brother, he carried him on his back for a full year (not knowing what to do with his brother’s corpse!).” Others said: He carried him on his back for one hundred years till Allah Almighty sent two crows who fought against one another. One of them was killed. The murderer scratched the ground to hide the body of the dead crow. Seeing him doing that, Cain said: Woe to me! Am I not even able to do as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother? Then, he buried the body of his dead brother and covered it with earth.

Historians said: Adam became very sick at heart and felt great sorrow for his dead son, Abel. Mujahid said: Cain was brought punishment very soon afterwards. On the same day he killed his brother, Abel, his foot was tied up to his thighbone and his face was forcibly directed up to the sun disk. His face used to go where the sun goes as a way of punishment and penalty in return for what he had done to his own brother. Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) said: “There is no sin more recurring punishment (very rapidly) in the present life, along with what awaits for its doer in the Hereafter, than transgression and severing the ties of relationship. ”

Imam Abu J a’ far mentioned in his Tarikh “History” on the authority of some people who had said: Eve gave birth to forty children through twenty births. Ibn Ishaq viewed the same and he mentioned their names in detail. However, nothing is sure of their names or numbers. Only Allah knows best and no one else can know their exact number! Others said: there were one hundred and twenty births, in each one a male and a female were born. The first among them were Cain and his sister Qalimah, and the last ones were `Abdul Mughith and his sister Ummul Mughith. Then, humans increased in number and spread into the earth. Allah Almighty says: {O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife [Hawwa (Eve)], and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allah through Whom you demand (your mutual rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you}. (An-Nisa’, 1)

Historians said: Adam did not die till he saw from among his progeny and offspring four hundred thousand persons (400.000). Only Allah knows best!

Allah, the Almighty says: {It is He Who has created you from a single person (Adam), and (then) He has created from him his wife [Hawwa’ (Eve)], in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. When he had sexual relation with her, she became pregnant and she carried it about lightly. Then when it became heavy, they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying): “If You give us a Salih (good in every aspect) child, we shall indeed be among the grateful.” But when He gave them a Salih (good in every aspect) child, they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them. High be Allah, Exalted above all that they ascribe as partners to Him}. (Al-A’raf, 189, 190) Adam was mentioned first to draw the attention of the reader of the Qur’an, then whom was mentioned second was the whole race of mankind. This is done by way of mentioning the whole race of mankind after mentioning the forefather thereof; Allah the Almighty says: {And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth). Thereafter We made him (the offspring of Adam) as a Nutfah (mixed drops of the male and female sexual discharge and lodged it) in a safe lodging (Womb of the woman)}. (Al-Mu’minun, 12, 13); and in: {And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps, and We have made such lamps (as) missiles to drive away the Shayatin (devils)}. (Al-Mulk, 5) Where it is well-known that the “lamps as missiles” are not the same as lamps of adornment, but He turned from a single category or person to the whole race.

Adam (Peace be upon him) was. the father of mankind. He was created by the Hand of Allah Who breathed out of His Soul into him, Who made the Angels prostrate themselves before him, Who taught him names of everything, and Who made him dwell in His spacious Paradise. Narrated Ibn Hibban in his Sahih on the authority of Abu Dharr his saying: “I said, 0 Allah’s Messenger! How many were the Prophets of Allah?’ He (Peace be upon him) said: ‘One hundred twenty -four thousands.’ I said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger! How many were the Messengers among them?’ He (Peace be upon him) said: ‘Three hundred and thirteen, a great number!’ I said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Who was the first among them? ‘He (Peace be upon him) said: ‘Adam.’ I said: ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Was he a Prophet sent with a Message?’ He (Peace be upon him) said: ‘Yes, Allah the Almighty created him with His Hand, then, breathed into him out of His Soul, then, He fashioned him (in a very proper manner). ”

In the Night Journey Hadith that can be found in the two Sahihs -Al-Bukhari and Muslim -Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) said: “So the gate was opened and we went over the nearest heaven and there we saw a man sitting with some people on his right and some on his left. When he looked towards his right, he laughed and when he looked towards his left he wept. Then he said, ‘Welcome! 0 pious Prophet and pious son!’ I asked Gabriel: ‘Who is he?’ He replied: ‘He is Adam and the people on his right and left are the souls of his offspring. Those on his right are the people of Paradise and those on his left are the people of Hell and when he looks towards his right he laughs and when he looks towards his left he weeps. ” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Regarding the Prophetic Hadith that reads: “Then, I passed by Yusuf (Joseph) and I found him to be granted half of beauty.”Some scholars explained that it means that he was given half of the beauty Adam was granted. Indeed, this is very suitable and convincing! That Allah, the Almighty created Adam, fashioned him by His Hand and breathed into him out of His Soul, for all these Allah the Almighty must have created the best of all things.

It was narrated on the authority of `Abdullah Ibn ‘Umar and’ Abdullah Ibn ‘Amr that: When Allah the Almighty created Paradise, the Angels said: “‘Our Lord! Make this for us for You created for mankind the present world in which they eat and drink.’ Allah the Almighty said: ‘By My Glory and Loftiness! I will not equalize between the pious from among those whom I created with My Hand, and those whom When I said “Be “, they were!” It was narrated in the two Sahihs -Bukhari and Muslim that Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) as saying: Allah, the Exalted and Glorious created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits, and as He created him He told him to greet that group, and that was a party of angels sitting there, and listen to the response that they give him, for it would form his greeting and that of his offspring. Adam then addressed them: Peace be upon you! They (the angels) said: May there be peace upon you and the Mercy of Allah, and they made an addition of “Mercy of Allah “. So he who would get into Paradise would get in the form of Adam, his length being sixty cubits, then the people who followed him continued to diminish in size up to this day. “(Al-Bukhari and Muslim)

Allah the Almighty says:

{And (remember) when Musa (Moses) said to his people: “Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you make fun of us?” He said, “I take Allah’s Refuge from being among Al-Jahilun (the ignorant or the foolish). ” They said, “Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!” He said, “He says: ‘Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions’, so do what you are commanded ” They said, “Call upon your Lordfor us to make plain to us its color.” He said, “He says: ‘It is a yellow cow, bright in its color, pleasing the beholders.” They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily, to us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.” He [Musa (Moses)] said, “He says: ‘It is a cow neither trained to tilt the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other color except bright yellow. ‘ “They said, “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it. And (remember) when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves as to the crime. ButAllah brought forth that which you were hiding. So We said: “Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow).” Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Aya: (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand}. (Al-Baqarah, 67-73)

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas, `Ubaidah As-Salmani, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Mujahid, As-Sadiy and other earlier scholars said: An old man from among the Children of Israel was very rich, and he had some nephews who wished he would die soon to inherit him. One day, one of them on purpose murdered him at night and threw him on the road -or at the door of one of his own brothers. In the morning, the people found the dead body and they disputed over him. His nephew -the murderer -came and began to weep and cry. Some people said: Why do you dispute over him? Why do not you go to Allah’s Prophet (Peace be upon him)? His nephew came and complained to Musa (Moses (Peace be upon him». Musa (Peace be upon him) said: by Allah! Anyone who knows anything about this murdered man, he should let us know. But, no one knew anything about it. Thereupon, they asked Musa (Peace be upon him) to ask his Lord concerning this issue. Musa (Peace be upon him) asked his Lord and he was commanded to order them to slaughter a cow, {Verily, Allah commands you that you slaughter a cow. They said, Do you make fun of us?} i.e. we ask you about the murdered and you say so! {He said, I take Allah’s Refuge from being among Al-Jahilun (the ignorant or the foolish)} i.e. I take Allah’s Refuge from saying other than that He revealed to me; and that was His Answer to what you had wanted me to ask Him.

Ibn ‘Abbas,’Ubaidah, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Sadiy, Abu Al-`Aliyah and others said: If they were to slaughter any cow, they would fulfill the purpose thereof. But, they made it difficult for themselves (by asking so many questions thereof), and thus Allah the Almighty made it difficult for them (by stipulating so many conditions for the desired cow). They asked about its description, color and age; and they were answered with what was scarce and dear (in a way to make it hard for them to find it). The point is that they were commanded to slaughter neither a too old cow, nor a too young, but (it is) between the two conditions. This view was held by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others. Then, they pressed themselves with their questions through asking about its color. And they were answered to make it {yellow cow, bright in its color, pleasing the beholders}, which is very rare and dear.

Then, they asked: {They said, “Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily, to us all cows are alike. And surely, if Allah wills, we will be guided.” He [Musa (Moses)] said, “He says: ‘It is a cow neither trained to tilt the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other color except bright yellow.’ “They said, “Now you have brought the truth.” So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it}. It is said that they could not find a cow with all these descriptions but with a man who was righteous and good to his father. They asked him to submit it to them, but he refused. They tried to seduce him as to its price till they offered him what equals its wieght in gold. But, he refused. Then, they offered him an amount of gold that equals its weight ten-times. Finally, he accepted their offer and submitted it to them. Then, Musa (Peace be upon him) commanded them to slaughter it {So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it} i.e. while they were hesitant.

Then, Musa (Peace be upon him) instructed them with the Command of Allah to strike the dead man with a piece of the cow. Some scholars said: with part of its thighbone, or with part of the flesh between its shoulders. When they stroke him with part thereof, he was resurrected by Allah the Almighty. Musa (Peace be upon him) asked him: who’s your murderer? He said: it was my nephew who killed me. Then, he died again. Allah the Almighty says {Thus Allah brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand} i.e. as you witnessed the revival of that dead man by the Command of Allah the Almighty, He can do the same to all the dead people when He wishes to. He, Almighty Allah, says {The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as (the creation and resurrection of) a single person. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer}. (Luqman, 28)

Allah the Almighty says:

{And ask them (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We made a trial of them, for they used to rebel against Allah’s Command (disobey Allah). And when a community among them said: “Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with q severe torment?” (The preachers) said: “in order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah), and perhaps they may fear Allah.” So when they forgot the remindings that had been given to them, We rescued those who forbade evil, but We seized those who did wrong with a severe torment because they used to rebel against Allah’s Command (disobey Allah). So when they exceeded the limits of what they were prohibited, We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despied and rejected}. (Al-A’ rat, 163-166)

And, {And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected.” So We made this punishment an example to their own and to succeeding generations and a lesson to those who are Al-Muttaqun (the pious)}. (Al-Baqarah, 65, 66)

And, {Or curse them as We cursed the Sabbath breakers}. (An-Nisa’, 47)

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas, Mujahid,’ Ikrimah, Qatadah, As-Sadiy and others said: they were the people of Aylah. Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) added: it was located between Median and At- Tur. They said: the people of Aylah were adhering attentively to the teachings of the Torah and the prohibition of the Sabbath at that time (the prohibition of fishing on Saturdays). Amazingly, the fish used to expose itself openly on Saturdays and disappear on the other days of the week, {when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath}. Almighty Allah says {Thus We made a trial of them}, i.e. We test them through sending great numbers of fish on the Sabbath. {for they used to rebel against Allah’s Command (disobey Allah)}, i.e. because of their disobedience and rebellion. When they saw this, they made a trick to catch the fish on the Sabbath. They fixed their fishing nets and ropes and excavated streams allowing the sea water to run through and the fish to get in but never go back to the sea. They made all this on Friday, in preparation for the coming of the fish on Saturday. And thus, the fish came on the supposedly-peaceful day (knowing not what has been prepared against them). They were caught in the nets, ropes and artificial streams. When the Saturday came to an end, the people of Aylah were present to take their fat catch. Consequently, Allah the Almighty was angry with them and He cursed them because of their trickery and deception. When this was done by a group thereof, the rest who did not participate in their sinful acting were divided into two sects: a sect that rejected their acting and trickery against the Law and Command of Allah the Almighty at that time. The second sect did not reject or forbid them, rather they disapproved of the reaction of the sect that forbade the sinful ones saying: {Why do you preach to a people whom Allah is about to destroy or to punish with a severe torment?}, i.e. what is the gain in preaching to a people whom will inevitably be punished by Allah the Almighty? But, the second sect (the preachers) replied saying: {In order to be free from guilt before your Lord (Allah)}, i.e. as we are commanded by Him to enjoin what is good and forbid what is evil; thus, we observe this for our fear of His Torment. {And perhaps they may fear Allah}, i.e. perhaps those who made these sins may repent to Allah and regret what they have done and thus be saved from the punishment of Allah and that He forgives them all.

Allah the Almighty says: {So when they forgot the remindings that had been given to them}, i.e. were heedless towards the godly preachers, {We rescued those who forbade evil}, i.e. the preaching sect, but {We seized those who did wrong}, i.e. doers of the sinful deed, {with a severe torment}, i.e. a painful punishment, {because they used to rebel against Allah’s Command (disobey Allah)}. Then, Allah explained the torment that befell them saying, {So when they exceeded the limits of what they were prohibited, We said to them: “Be you monkeys, despised and rejected}.

Here, the point is that Allah the Almighty informed us that He destroyed the wrong-doers, saved the preaching believers and left the believers who did not practice enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. Scholars disputed regarding the third group. Some said they were granted salvation. And others said that they were destroyed with the wrong-doers. But, the first view is the accepted one by the well-versed scholars, including Ibn ‘Abbas head of the interpreters -who referred to this opinion on a debate with his master ‘lkrimah who upon the victory of Ibn ‘Abbas – granted him a valuable garment as a reward.

It should be noted here that the third group were not mentioned with those given salvation even though they despised the sinful deed, with their hearts, because they should have compelled their organs (hand or tongue) to act thereupon and declare their rejection of the wrong-doers’ act. So, they were saved with the preachers because they themselves did not commit the sinful deed, rather they rejected it with their hearts.

Narrated ‘Abdur Razzaq after Juraij after a man (whose name is not known) after ‘Ikrimah after Ibn ‘Abbas; and Malik transmitted from Ibn Ruman, Shaiban, Qatadah and ‘Ata ‘Al-Kharasani what means: Those who committed the sinful deed were abandoned by the rest of the people of the town. Some of them declared their rejection and denial of their deed. They did not listen to the preachers. Afterwards, they used to stay the night apart from the rest of the people of the town and there were doors or barriers between them and the rest of the people who were anticipating the befalling of punishment over them. One day, their doors did not open till the noon. The people got anxious and sent one of them to see what happened to them from above the barrier. When he looked he found them turned into monkeys with tails, shouting. They opened the doors (barrier) and the monkeys recognized their relatives while their relatives could not recognize them. Thereupon, the preachers said: Did not we forbid you from doing this? The monkeys made a sign with their heads denoting: Yes. Then, ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) wept and said: verily, we see many wrong-doings which we do not reject or deny or even make a comment!

Narrated Al-‘Ufi after Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) saying: the young men of the town were turned into monkeys, while the old men into pigs. Moreover, Ibn Abu Hatim narrated from MujaQid after Ibn ‘Abbas his saying: they did not live long and they left no offspring. Also, Adpahhaq narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him): no monster has lived more than three days. In addition, they did not eat, drink or leave offspring.

Narrated Ibn Abu Hatim and Ibn Jarir after Ibn Abu Nujaih from Mujahid his saying: only their hearts and not their figures were turned into monkeys and pigs. This is just like His Statement that reads: {The likeness of those who were entrusted with the (obligation of the) Taurat (Torah) (i.e. to obey its commandments and practice its laws), but who subsequently failed in those (obligations), is as the likeness of a donkey which carries huge burdens of books (but understands nothing from them)}. (Al-Jumu’ ah, 5) But, this view seems to be very strange and it contradicts the apparent meaning of the Glorious Qur’an and the concession of the earlier scholars and those who followed them. Allah knows best!

Allah the Almighty says:

{Verily, We have tried them as We tried the people of the garden, when they swore to pluck the fruits of the (garden) in the morning. Without saying: Insha’Allah (If Allah wills). Then there passed by on the (garden) a visitation (fire) from your Lord at night and burnt it while they were asleep. So the (garden) became black by the morning, like a pitch dark night (in complete ruins). Then they called out one to another as soon as the morning broke. Saying: “Go to your tilth in the morning, if you would pluck the fruits.” So they departed, conversing in secret low tones (saying): No Miskin (poor man) shall enter upon you into it today. And they went in the morning with strong intention, thinking that they have power (to prevent the poor taking anything of the fruits therefrom). But when they saw the (garden), they said: “Verily, we have gone astray.” (Then they said): “Nay! Indeed we are deprived of (the fruits)!” The best among them said: “Did I not tell you: why say you not: Insha’ Allah (If Allah wills).” They said: “Glory to Our Lord! Verily, we have been Zalimun (wrong-doers).” Then they turned one against another, blaming. They said: “Woe to us! Verily, we were Taghun (transgressors and disobedient). We hope that our Lord will give us in exchange a better (garden) than this. Truly, we turn to our Lord (wishing for good that He may forgive our sins and reward us in the Hereafter). Such is the punishment (in this life), but truly the punishment of the Hereafter is greater if they but knew}. (Al-Qalam, 17-33)

This is an example set by Allah the Almighty for the polytheists of Quraish as He favored them with sending the honorable and great Prophet, Muhammad (Peace be upon him), but they belied him and rejected what he had brought them. Almighty Allah, says: {Have you not seen those who have changed the Blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction? Hell, in which they will burn, -and what an evil place to settle in!}. (Ibrahim, 28, 29) Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said: They are the polytheists of Quraish whom were likened to the people of the garden that contained various fruits and plants that were ripe and the time of their harvesting has come. Thus, He, Glory be His,

says: {When they swore} secretly {to pluck the fruits of the (garden)}

i.e. to harvest it; {in the morning} in order not to be seen by either a poor, or a needy and be forced to donate to or give them any of its fruits. So, they swore to this without saying “If Allah wills”. Consequently, Allah the Almighty disabled them and sent over their garden fire that burnt it and left nothing thereof. He, Glory be His, says: {Then, there passed by on the (garden) a visitation (fire) from your Lord at night and burnt it while they were asleep. So the (garden) became black by the morning, like a pitch dark night (in complete ruins)}.

Allah the Almighty says: {Then they called out one to another as soon as the morning broke}, i.e. they got up in the morning and they called out one to another saying: {Go to your tilth in the morning, if you would pluck the fruits}, i.e. go early to your garden and pluck the fruits before the poor and needy persons come to ask you for charity. The story goes: {So they departed, conversing in secret low tones}, i.e. talking one to another in low tones saying: {No Miskin (poor man) shall enter upon you into it today}, i.e. they agreed upon that and made mutual consultations thereto. The story goes on: {And they went in the morning with strong intention, thinking that they have power (to prevent the poor taking anything of the fruits therefrom)}, i.e. they went forth with seriousness, power and strong bad intention.

`Ikrimah and Ash-Shu`abi said: {And they went in the morning with strong intention}, i.e. rage and bad intention against the poor. {But when they saw the (garden)}, i.e. when they reached their garden and found what had happened to it, upon this {they said: Verily, we have gone astray}, i.e. we have lost our way to our own garden, then they said: {Nay! Indeed we are deprived of (the fruits)!}, i.e. we have been punished because of our bad intentions and were deprived of the blessing of our tilth.

And, {the best among them said} Ibn `Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him), Mujahid and others said: He was the best and the most moderate and just one among them all. {Did I not tell you: why say you not: Insha’Allah (If Allah wills)}, it was said: To say a good word instead of what you have intended. {They said: “Glory to Our Lord! Verily, we have been Zalimun (wrong-doers).” Then they turned one against another, blaming. They said: “Woe to us! Verily, we were Taghun (transgressors and disobedient)}, they regretted and showed sorrow when both could do them nothing, and they confessed their sinful deed after they had been punished and all that went in vain.

It was said: That they were brothers and they inherited that garden from their late father who used to give much and much in charity. But, when they possessed the garden they denied the acting of their late father and intended to deprive the poor of its fruits. Thereupon, Allah the Almighty punished them and gave them the severest of penalties. For this, Allah the Almighty commanded

that charity must be taken out of fruits and it is preferably to be paid on the day of harvesting. He says: {Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (its Zakah, according to Allah’s Orders l/lOth or 1/20th) on the day of its harvest}. (Al-An’am, 141)

It was said: They were from the Yemen, from a town called “Darwan”. It was also said: They were from Abyssinia. Allah knows best!

Allah the Almighty says: {Such is the punishment}, i.e. like this We punish whose who disobey Our Command and does not show kindness to the needy from among Our creatures. {But truly the punishment of the Hereafter is greater} than that of the present life {if they but knew}.

This story resembles Allah’s Saying: {And Allah puts forward the example of a township, that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favors of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) which they (its people) used to do. And verily, there had come unto them a Messenger (Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) from among themselves, but they denied him, so the torment overtook them while they were Zalimun (polytheists and wrong-doers)}. (An-Nahl, 112, 113) It was said that this example was of the people of Mecca set for themselves and verily, there is no contradiction in this. Allah knows best!

Allah the Almighty says:

{By the heaven holding the big stars. And by the Promised Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection). And by the Witnessing day (i.e. Friday), and by .the Witnessed day (i.e. the Day of ‘Arafat (Hajj) the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah]. Cursed were the people of the Ditch (in the story of the Boy and the King). Of fire fed with fuel. When they sat by it (fire). And they witnessed what they were doing against the believers (i.e. burning them). And they had no fault except that they believed in Allah, the All-Mighty, Worthy of all Praise! To Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! And Allah is Witness over everything. Verily, those who put into trial the believing men and believing women (by torturing them and burning them), and then do not turn in repentance (to Allah), then they will have the torment of Hell, and they will have the punishment of the burning Fire}. (Al-Buruj, 1-10)

Muhammad Ibn Ishaq claimed that they lived after the advent of Jesus (Peace be upon him), but other scholars disagreed with him claiming them to live before him (Peace be upon him). However, many scholars mentioned that this incident was repeated more than once. There is a Prophetic Hadith narrating the story of those mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an. Imam Ahmed said: I was told by Harnrnad Ibn Salamah after Thabit after’ Abdur Rahman Ibn Abu Laila as saying: Suhaib (May Allah be pleased withhim) reported that Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon him) thus said: ‘There lived a king before you and he had a (court) magician. As he (the magician) grew old, he said to the king: I have grown old, send some young boy to me so that I should teach him magic. He (the king) sent him a young boy so that he should train him (in magic). And on his way (to The magician) he (the young boy) found a monk sitting there. He listened to the monk’s lalk and was impressed by it. It became his habit to pass by the monk and spent the time with him listening to his teachings and then leave to the magician late. He (the magician) beat him because of delay. He made a complaint of that to the monk and he said to him: When you feel afraid of the magician, say: Members of my family had detained me. And when you feel afraid of your family you should say: The magician had detained me. It so happened that there came a huge beast (of prey) and it blocked the way of the people, and he (the young boy) said: I will, come to know today whether the magician is superior or the monk is superior. He picked up a stone and said: 0 Allah, if the affair of the monk is dearer to Thee than the affair of the magician, cause death to this animal so that the people should be able to move about freely. He threw that stone towards it and killed it and the people began to move about (on the path freely). He (the young man) then came to that monk and informed him and the monk said: Sonny, today you are superior to me. Your affair has come to a stage where I find that you would be soon put to a trial, and in case you are put to a trial don’t give my clue. That young man began to treat the blind and those suffering from leprosy. He in fact began to cure people from (all kinds) of illness. When a companion of the king who had gone blind heard about him, he came to him with numerous gifts and said: If you cure me, all these things collected together here

would be yours. He said: I myself do not cure anyone. It is Allah Who cures and if you affirm faith in Allah, I shall also supplicate Allah to cure you. He affirmed his faith in Allah and Allah cured him and he came to the king and sat by his side as he used to sit before. The king said to him: Who restored your eyesight? He said: My Lord! The king got astounded: should it mean that your Lord is another One besides me. He said: My Lord and your Lord is Allah, so he (the king) took hold of him and tormented him till he gave a clue of that boy. The young man was thus summoned and the king said to him: 0 boy, it has been conveyed to me that you have become so much proficient in your magic that you cure the blind and those suffering from leprosy and you do such and such things. The boy said: I do not cure anyone; it is Allah Who cures. The king took hold of him and began to torment him. Eventually the boy gave a clue of the monk. The monk was thus summoned and it was said to him: You should turn back from your religion. He, however, refused to do so. He (ordered) for a saw to be brought (and when it was done) he (the king) placed it in the middle of his head and tore it into parts till a part fell down. Then the courtier of the king was brought and it was said to him: Turn back from your religion. And he refused to do so, and the saw was placed in the midst of his head and it was torn till a part fell down. Then that young boy was brought and it was said to him: Turn back from your religion. He refused to do so and he was handed over to a group of his courtiers. The king ruled: Take him to such and such mountain,’ make him climb up that mountain and when you reach its top (ask him to renounce his faith) but if he refuses to do so, then throw him (down the mountain). So they took him and made him climb up the mountain and he said: 0 Allah, save me from them (in any way) Thou likest and the mountain began to quake and they all fell down and that person came walking to the king. The king said to him: What has happened to your companions (the courtiers)? He said: Allah has saved me from them. He again handed him to some of his courtiers and said: Take him and carry him in a small boat and when you reach the middle of the ocean (ask him to renounce) his religion, but if he does not renounce his religion throw him (into the water). So they took him and the boy said: 0 Allah, save me from them and what they want to do. It was quite soon that the boat turned over and they were drowned and he came walking to the king, and the king said to him: What has happened to your companions (the courtiers)? He said: Allah has saved me from them, and he said to the king: You cannot kill me until you do what I ask you to do. And he said: What is that? He said: You should gather people in a plain and hang me by the trunk (of a tree). Then take hold of an arrow from the quiver and say: In the name of Allah, the Lord of the worlds, then shoot an arrow and if you do that then you would be able to kill me. The king called the people in an open plain and tied the boy to the trunk of a tree, then he took hold of an arrow from his quiver and then placed the arrow in the bow and then said: In the Name of Allah, the Lord of the young boy; he then shot an arrow and it bit his temple. He (the boy) placed his hands upon the temple where the arrow had bit him and he died and the people said: We affirm our faith in the Lord of this young man, we affirm our faith in the Lord of this young man, we affirm our faith in the Lord of this young man. The courtiers came to the king and it was said to him: Do you see that Allah has actually done what you aimed at averting. They (the people) have affirmed their faith in the Lord. The king commanded ditches to be dug at certain points in the path. When these ditches were dug, and the fire was lit in them it was said (to the people): He who would not turn back from his (the boy’s) religion would be thrown in the fire or it would be said to them to jump in it. (The people courted death but did not renounce religion) till a woman came with her child and she felt hesitant in jumping into the fire and the child said to her: 0 mother, endure (this ordeal) for it is the Truth.” (Transmitted by Imam Ahmed, Imam Muslim and An-Nasa’i from the Hadith of Hammad Ibn Salamah).

Some scholars claimed that the incident of the ditch was recurred or repeated in the past more than once. Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by my father after Abul Yaman after Safwan Ibn ‘Abdur Rahman Ibn Jubair as saying: the incident of the ditch took place in the Yemen during the lifetime of Tubba’. And, it took place in Constantinople during the lifetime of Constantine who set the fires in which he threw the Christians who were sticking to the religion of Jesus (Islamic Monotheism). It also took place in Iraq, in the land of Babylon during the lifetime of Bikhtinassar who erected an idol and ordered the people to prostrate themselves before it. Daniel, ‘Izrya and Mashayl refused and thereupon, he set a great fire and threw them into it. However, Allah Almighty saved them from the fire and caused the nine men who transgressed over them to fell into the fire they themselves made.

Concerning Allah’s Statement that reads: {Cursed were the people of the Ditch}, As-Sadiy said: There were three ditches: one in Sham (Syria), another in Iraq, and the third in the Yemen. (Narrated by Ibn Abu Hatim)


 

I would like to make clear all the visitors of my blog that I am not Rqaqi, Aamil, or Spiritual Healer. Any Raaqi you contact via my blog, know they do not represent this blog or me.

 

In my knowledge these are few dedicated places where you can get your spiritual healing according to Quran and Sunnah. I can recommend these places as in my knowledge they works according to Quran and Sunnah; but I cannot be made responsible either individually or severally for any untoward incidents.

 

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